Effect of culture conditions on mycelial growth, antibacterial activity, and metabolite profiles of the marine-derived fungus Arthrinium c.f. saccharicola
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The effects of culture conditions and competitive cultivation with bacteria on mycelial growth, metabolite profile, and antibacterial activity of the marine-derived fungus Arthrinium c.f. saccharicola were investigated. The fungus grew faster at 30°C, at pH 6.5 and in freshwater medium, while exhibited higher antibacterial activity at 25°C, at pH 4.5, 5.5, and 7.5, and in 34 ppt seawater medium. The fungus grew faster in a high-nitrogen medium that contained 0.5% peptone and/or 0.5% yeast extract, while exhibiting higher bioactivity in a high-carbon medium that contained 2% glucose. The fungal growth was inhibited when it was co-cultured with six bacterial species, particularly the bacterium Pseudoalteromonas piscida. The addition of a cell free culture broth of this bacterium significantly increased the bioactivity of the fungus. Metabolite profiles of the fungus revealed by gas chromatography (GC)-mass spectrometry showed clear difference among different treatments, and the change of relative area of three peaks in GC profile followed a similar trend with the bioactivity variation of fungal extracts. Our results showed clear differences in the optimal conditions for achieving maximal mycelial growth and bioactivity of the fungus, which is important for the further study on the mass cultivation and bioactive compounds isolation from this fungus.