Creation of Rhizopus oryzae lipase having a unique oxyanion hole by combinatorial mutagenesis in the lid domain
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Combinatorial libraries of the lid domain of Rhizopus oryzae lipase (ROL; Phe88Xaa, Ala91Xaa, Ile92Xaa) were displayed on the yeast cell surface using yeast cell-surface engineering. Among the 40,000 transformants in which ROL mutants were displayed on the yeast cell surface, ten clones showed clear halos on soybean oil-containing plates. Among these, some clones exhibited high activities toward fatty acid esters of fluorescein and contained non-polar amino acid residues in the mutated positions. Computer modeling of the mutants revealed that hydrophobic interactions between the substrates and amino acid residues in the open form of the lid might be critical for ROL activity. Based on these results, Thr93 and Asp94 were further combinatorially mutated. Among 6,000 transformants, the Thr93Thr, Asp94Ser and Thr93Ser, Asp94Ser transformants exhibited a significant shift in substrate specificity toward a short-chain substrate. Computer modeling of these mutants suggested that a unique oxyanion hole, which is composed of Thr85 Oγ and Ser94 Oγ, was formed and thus the substrate specificity was changed. Therefore, coupling combinatorial mutagenesis with the cell surface display of ROL could lead to the production of a unique ROL mutant.