Advertisement

Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology

, Volume 68, Issue 2, pp 272–282 | Cite as

Corrosion risk associated with microbial souring control using nitrate or nitrite

  • Casey Hubert
  • Mehdi Nemati
  • Gary Jenneman
  • Gerrit VoordouwEmail author
Environmental Biotechnology

Abstract

Souring, the production of hydrogen sulfide by sulfate-reducing bacteria (SRB) in oil reservoirs, can be controlled through nitrate or nitrite addition. To assess the effects of this containment approach on corrosion, metal coupons were installed in up-flow packed-bed bioreactors fed with medium containing 8 mM sulfate and 25 mM lactate. Following inoculation with produced water to establish biogenic H2S production, some bioreactors were treated with 17.5 mM nitrate or up to 20 mM nitrite, eliminating souring. Corrosion rates were highest near the outlet of untreated bioreactors (up to 0.4 mm year−1). Nitrate (17.5 mM) eliminated sulfide but gave pitting corrosion near the inlet of the bioreactor, whereas a high nitrite dose (20 mM) completely eliminated microbial activity and associated corrosion. More gradual, step-wise addition of nitrite up to 20 mM resulted in the retention of microbial activity and localized pitting corrosion, especially near the bioreactor inlet. We conclude that: (1) SRB control by nitrate or nitrite reduction shifts the corrosion risk from the bioreactor outlet to the inlet (i.e. from production to injection wells) and (2) souring treatment by continuous addition of a high inhibitory nitrite dose is preferable from a corrosion-prevention point of view.

Keywords

Nitrite Corrosion Rate Nitrite Concentration Much Probable Number Sampling Port 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

Notes

Acknowledgements

This work was supported by a Strategic Grant from the Natural Sciences and Engineering Research Coucil of Canada (NSERC) and by a grant from ConocoPhillips. C.H. was supported by graduate scholarships from NSERC, the Alberta Ingenuity Fund and the Government of Alberta. The authors would like to thank Pat McCarron and Andrew Richardson from Petrovera Resources for providing Coleville produced water samples and Trevor Mazutinec for technical assistance.

References

  1. APHA (1980) Standard methods for the examination of water and waste water. American Public Health Association , Washington, D.C., pp 439–440Google Scholar
  2. Beech IB, Gaylarde CC (1999) Recent advances in the study of biocorrosion—an overview. Rev Microbiol 30:177–190Google Scholar
  3. Bradberry SM, Gazzard B, Allister Vale J (1994) Methemoglobinemia caused by the accidental contamination of drinking water with sodium nitrite. Clin Toxicol 32:173–178Google Scholar
  4. Cragnolino G, Tuovinen OH (1984) The role of sulphate-reducing and sulphur-oxidizing bacteria in the localized corrosion of iron-base alloys—a review. Int Biodeterior 20:9–26Google Scholar
  5. Dinh HT, Kuever J, Mussman M, Hassel AW, Stratmann M, Widdel F (2004) Iron corrosion by novel anaerobic microorganisms. Nature 427:829–832Google Scholar
  6. Eckford RE, Fedorak PM (2002a) Planktonic nitrate-reducing bacteria and sulfate-reducing bacteria in some western Canadian oil field waters. J Ind Microbiol Biotechnol 29:83–92CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Eckford RE, Fedorak PM (2002b) Chemical and microbiological changes in laboratory incubations of nitrate amendment “sour” produced waters from three western Canadian oil fields. J Ind Microbiol Biotechnol 29:243–254CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Gardner LR, Stewart PS (2002) Action of glutaraldehyde and nitrite against sulfate-reducing bacterial biofilms. J Ind Microbiol Biotechnol 29:354–360CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Geesey GG, Beech I, Bremer PJ, Webster BJ, Wells DB (2000) Biocorrosion. In: Bryers JD (ed) Biofilms II: process analysis and applications. Wiley–Liss, New York, pp 281–325Google Scholar
  10. Gevertz D, Telang AJ, Voordouw G, Jenneman G (2000) Isolation and characterization of strains CVO and FWKO B, two novel nitrate-reducing, sulfide oxidizing bacteria isolated from oil field brine. Appl Environ Microbiol 66:2491–2501CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Greene EA, Hubert C, Nemati M, Jenneman G, Voordouw G (2003) Nitrite reductase activity of sulfate-reducing bacteria prevents their inhibition by nitrate-reducing, sulfide-oxidizing bacteria. Environ Microbiol 5:607–617Google Scholar
  12. Hamilton WA (1985) Sulphate-reducing bacteria and anaerobic corrosion. Annu Rev Microbiol 39:195–217CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  13. Hardy JA, Bown JL (1984) The corrosion of mild steel by biogenic sulfide films exposed to air. Corrosion 40:650–654Google Scholar
  14. Hubert C, Nemati M, Jenneman GE, Voordouw G (2003) Containment of biogenic sulfide production in continuous up-flow packed-bed bioreactors with nitrate or nitrite. Biotechnol Prog 19:338–345CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Hurley MA, Roscoe ME (1983) Automated statistical analysis of microbial enumeration by dilution series. J Appl Bacteriol 55:159–164Google Scholar
  16. Jayaraman A, Hallock PJ, Carson RM, Lee CC, Mansfeld FB, Wood TK (1999) Inhibiting sulfate-reducing bacteria in biofilms on steel with antimicrobial peptides generated in situ. Appl Microbiol Biotechnol 52:267–275CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  17. Kielemos J, De Boever P, Verstraete W (2000) Influence of denitrification on the corrosion of iron and stainless steel powder. Environ Sci Technol 34:663–671Google Scholar
  18. Lee W, Lewandowski Z, Okabe S, Characklis WG, Avci R (1993) Corrosion of mild steel underneath aerobic biofilms containing sulfate-reducing bacteria. Part I. At low dissolved oxygen concentration. Biofouling 7:197–216Google Scholar
  19. Lewandowski Z, Dickinson W, Lee W (1997) Electrochemical interactions of biofilms with metal surfaces. Water Sci Technol 36:295–302CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Mustafa CM, Obaydur Rahman AKM, Begum DA (1996) Effects of time and temperature on the mild steel corrosion inhibition by molybdate and nitrite. Ind J Chem Toxicol 3:44–48Google Scholar
  21. Nemati M, Mazutinec T, Jenneman GE, Voordouw G (2001a) Control of biogenic H2S production by nitrite and molybdate. J Ind Microbiol Biotechnol 26:350–355CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Nemati M, Jenneman GE, Voordouw G (2001b) Impact of nitrate-mediated microbial control of souring in oil reservoirs on the extent of corrosion. Biotechnol Prog 17:852–859CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Nemati M, Jenneman GE, Voordouw G (2001c) Mechanistic study of microbial control of hydrogen sulfide production in oil reservoirs. Biotechnol Bioeng 74:424–434Google Scholar
  24. Potekhina JS, Sherisheva NG, Povetkina LP, Pospelov AP, Rakitina TA, Warnecke F, Gottschalk G (1999) Role of microorganisms in corrosion inhibition of metals in aquatic habitats. Appl Microbiol Biotechnol 52:639–646CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Sherwood PMA (1993) Corrosion inhibitor surface chemistry studied by core and valence band photoemission. J Vac Sci Technol 11:2280–2285Google Scholar
  26. Telang AJ, Ebert S, Foght JM, Westlake DWS, Jenneman GE, Gevertz D, Voordouw G (1997) The effect of nitrate injection on the microbial community in an oil field as monitored by reverse sample genome probing. Appl Environ Microbiol 63:1785–1793Google Scholar
  27. Zuo R, Orneck D, Syrett BC, Green RM, Hsu C-H, Mansfeld FB, Wood TK (2004) Inhibiting mild steel corrosion from sulfate-reducing bacteria using antimicrobial-producing biofilms in Three-Mile-Island process water. Appl Microbiol Biotechnol 64:275–283Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag 2005

Authors and Affiliations

  • Casey Hubert
    • 1
  • Mehdi Nemati
    • 2
  • Gary Jenneman
    • 3
  • Gerrit Voordouw
    • 1
    Email author
  1. 1.Department of Biological SciencesUniversity of CalgaryCalgaryCanada
  2. 2.Department of Chemical EngineeringUniversity of SaskatchewanSaskatoonCanada
  3. 3.ConocoPhillipsBartlesvilleUSA

Personalised recommendations