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Metabolism of 4,4′-dichlorobiphenyl by white-rot fungi Phanerochaete chrysosporium and Phanerochaete sp. MZ142

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Abstract

Degradation experiment of model polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) compound 4,4′-dichlorobiphenyl (4,4′-DCB) and its metabolites by the white-rot fungus Phanerochaete chrysosporium and newly isolated 4,4′-DCB-degrading white-rot fungus strain MZ142 was carried out. Although P. chrysosporium showed higher degradation of 4,4′-DCB in low-nitrogen (LN) medium than that in potato dextrose broth (PDB) medium, Phanerochaete sp. MZ142 showed higher degradation of 4,4′-DCB under PDB medium condition than that in LN medium. The metabolic pathway of 4,4′-DCB was elucidated by the identification of metabolites upon addition of 4,4′-DCB and its metabolic intermediates. 4,4′-DCB was initially metabolized to 2-hydroxy-4,4′-DCB and 3-hydroxy-4,4′-DCB by Phanerochaete sp. MZ142. On the other hand, P. chrysosporium transformed 4,4′-DCB to 3-hydroxy-4,4′-DCB and 4-hydroxy-3,4′-DCB produced via a National Institutes of Health shift of 4-chlorine. 3-Hydroxy-4,4′-DCB was transformed to 3-methoxy-4,4′-DCB; 4-chlorobenzoic acid; 4-chlorobenzaldehyde; and 4-chlorobenzyl alcohol in the culture with Phanerochaete sp. MZ142 or P. chrysosporium. LN medium condition was needed to form 4-chlorobenzoic acid, 4-chlorobenzaldehyde, and 4-chlorobenzyl alcohol from 3-hydroxy-4,4′-DCB, indicating the involvement of secondary metabolism. 2-Hydroxy-4,4′-DCB was not methylated. In this paper, we proved for the first time by characterization of intermediate that hydroxylation of PCB was a key step in the PCB degradation process by white-rot fungi.

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Acknowledgements

This work was supported in part by a Grant-in-aid (hazardous chemicals) from the Ministry of Agriculture, Forestry, and Fisheries of Japan (HC-03-2444-1) and by a Grant-in-aid for scientific research from the Ministry of Education, Science, and Culture of Japan (16380121).

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Correspondence to Ryuichiro Kondo.

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Kamei, I., Kogura, R. & Kondo, R. Metabolism of 4,4′-dichlorobiphenyl by white-rot fungi Phanerochaete chrysosporium and Phanerochaete sp. MZ142. Appl Microbiol Biotechnol 72, 566–575 (2006). https://doi.org/10.1007/s00253-005-0303-4

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Keywords

  • PCBs
  • Potato Dextrose Broth
  • Piperonyl Butoxide
  • Dichlorobiphenyl
  • Potato Dextrose Broth Medium