Springer Nature is making SARS-CoV-2 and COVID-19 research free. View research | View latest news | Sign up for updates

Rhizopus oryzae fungus cells producing L(+)-lactic acid: kinetic and metabolic parameters of free and PVA-cryogel-entrapped mycelium

  • 243 Accesses

  • 22 Citations


Spores of the filamentous fungus Rhizopus oryzae were entrapped in macroporous poly(vinyl alcohol) cryogel (PVA-cryogel). To prepare immobilised biocatalyst capable of producing L(+)-lactic acid (LA), the fungus cells were cultivated inside the carrier beads. The growth parameters and metabolic activity of the suspended (free) and immobilised cells producing LA in a batch process were comparatively investigated. The immobilised cells possessed increased resistance to high concentrations of accumulated product and gave much higher yields of LA in the iterative working cycle than the free cells did. Detailed kinetic analysis of the changes in the intracellular adenosine triphosphate concentration, specific rate of growth, substrate consumption and LA production showed that the fungus cells entrapped in PVA-cryogel are more attractive for biotechnological applications compared to the free cells.

This is a preview of subscription content, log in to check access.

Fig. 1
Fig. 2


  1. Datta R, Tsai S-P, Bonsignore P, Moon S-H, Frank JR (1995) Technological and economic potential of poly(lactic acid) and lactic acid derivatives. FEMS Microbiol Rev 16:221–231

  2. Dementieva EI, Kutuzova GD, Lundovskih IA, Ugarova NN (2001) Reagent for the detection of adenosine-5'-triphosphate. Russian Patent 2,164,241

  3. Dong X-Y, Bai S, Sun Y (1996) Production of L(+)-lactic acid with Rhizopus oryzae immobilised in polyurethane foam cubes. Biotechnol Lett 18:225–228

  4. Efremenko EN, Spiricheva OV, Veremeenko DV, Lozinsky VI (2004) New approach to the production of lactic acid: immobilised biocatalyst based on fungus cells entrapped in PVA cryogel. Hem Ind (Chem Ind Belgr) 58:116–117

  5. Efremenko EN, Spiricheva OV, Varfolomeyev SD, Sineoky SP, Baibak AV, Lozinsky VI (2005) Immobilised biocatalyst, method of its preparation and method of lactic acid production with the use of this biocatalyst. Russian Patent 2,253,677

  6. Efremenko EN, Spiricheva OV, Veremeenko DV, Baibak AV, Lozinsky VI (2006) L(+)-lactic acid production using PVA-cryogel entrapped Rhizopus oryzae fungus cells. J Chem Technol Biotechnol 81:accepted for publication

  7. Hamamci H, Ryu DDY (1994) Production of L(+)-lactic acid using immobilised Rhizopus oryzae. Appl Biochem Biotechnol 44:125–133

  8. Hujanen M, Linko S, Linko YY, Leisola M (2001) Optimisation of media and cultivation conditions for L(+)(S)-lactic acid production by Lactobacillus casei NRRL B-441. Appl Microbiol Biotechnol 56:126–130

  9. Junter G-A, Coquet L, Vilain S, Jouennet S (2002) Immobilised-cell physiology: current data and the potentialities of proteomics. Enzyme Microb Technol 31:201–212

  10. Kosakai Y, Park YS, Okabe M (1997) Enhancement of L(+)-lactic acid production using mycelial flocs of Rhizopus oryzae. Biotechnol Bioeng 55:462–466

  11. Kwon S, Lee PC, Lee EG, Chang YK, Chang N (2000) Production of lactic acid by Lactobacillusrhamnosus with vitamin-supplemented soybean hydrolysate. Enzyme Microb Technol 26:209–215

  12. Lozinsky VI (1998) Cryotropic gelation of poly(vinyl alcohol). Russ Chem Rev 67:573–586 (English edition)

  13. Lozinsky VI, Plieva FM (1998) Poly(vinyl alcohol) cryogels employed as matrices for cell immobilisation, 3. Overview of recent research and developments. Enzyme Microb Technol 23:227–242

  14. Lozinsky VI, Zubov AL (1992) Device for the formation of spherical granules on the basis of aqueous systems. Russian Patent 2,036,095

  15. Miura S, Arimura T, Hoshino M, Kojima M, Dwiarti L, Okabe M (2003) Optimization and scale-up of L-lactic acid fermentation by mutant strain Rhizopus sp. MK-96-1196. J Biosci Bioeng 96:65–69

  16. Narayanan N, Roychoudhury PK, Srivastava A (2004) L(+)-lactic acid fermentation and its product polymerization. Electr J Biotechnol 7:167–179

  17. Nedovic V, Willaert R (2004) Fundamentals of cell immobilisation biotechnology. Ser. Focus on biotechnology, V. 8A. Springer, Berlin Heidelberg New York

  18. Pirt SJ (1975) Principles of microbe and cell cultivation. Blackwells Scientific Publications, London

  19. Schepers AW, Thibault J, Lacroix C (2002) Lactobacillus helveticus growth and lactic acid production during pH-controlled batch cultures in whey permeate/yeast extract medium. Part II: kinetic modeling and model validation. Enzyme Microb Technol 30:187–194

  20. Sun Y, Li Y-L, Bai S (1999) Modeling of continuous L(+)-lactic acid production with immobilised Rhizopus oryzae in airlift bioreactor. Biochem Eng J 3:87–90

  21. Tay A, Yang S-T (2002) Production of L(+)-lactic acid from glucose and starch by immobilised cell of Rhizopus oryzae in a rotating fibrous bed bioreactor. Biotechnol Bioeng 80:1–12

  22. Xuemei L, Jianping L, Mo’e L, Peilin C (1999) L(+)-Lactic acid production using immobilised Rhizopus oryzae in a three-phase fluidized-bed with simultaneous product separation by electrodialysis. Bioprocess Eng 20:231–237

  23. Yin P, Nishina N, Kosakai Y, Yahiro K, Park Y, Okabe M (1997) Enhanced production of L(+)-lactic acid from corn starch in a culture of Rhizopus oryzae using an air-lift bioreactor. J Ferment Bioeng 84:249–253

Download references

Author information

Correspondence to E. Efremenko.

Rights and permissions

Reprints and Permissions

About this article

Cite this article

Efremenko, E., Spiricheva, O., Varfolomeyev, S. et al. Rhizopus oryzae fungus cells producing L(+)-lactic acid: kinetic and metabolic parameters of free and PVA-cryogel-entrapped mycelium. Appl Microbiol Biotechnol 72, 480–485 (2006). https://doi.org/10.1007/s00253-005-0297-y

Download citation


  • Lactic Acid
  • Fungus Cell
  • Free Cell
  • Lactic Acid Production
  • Lactic Acid Concentration