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DGGE analysis of 16S rDNA of ammonia-oxidizing bacteria in chemical–biological flocculation and chemical coagulation systems


Microbial community DNA was extracted from activated sludge samples taken from a chemical bioflocculation process and a chemical coagulation process in Shanghai, China. 16S rDNA of ammonia-oxidizing bacteria (AOB)was amplified by nested polymerase chain reaction and fingerprinted by denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis for microbial structure analysis. The Shannon diversity index of each sample was determined. The results indicated that the microbial structure of AOB in chemical bioflocculation process was comparable at two operational conditions. The ammonia-oxidizing bacterial communities were similar in three channels of the chemical bioflocculation process and in three serial tanks in the chemical coagulation process at the same condition. The diversity of microbial structures in the chemical bioflocculation process was higher than in the chemical coagulation process, in which the microbial structure was similar to that in the influent. Although the microbial study provides insights to the nitrification removal, higher microbial diversity of AOB does not necessarily mean higher ammonia oxidization. Molecular analysis should be combined with chemical assays to optimize operational conditions.

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This article is supported by the National High Technology Research and Development Program of China (863 Program) No. 2002AA601320 and the Shuguang Program of Shanghai.

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Correspondence to Siqing Xia.

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Xia, S., Shi, Y., Fu, Y. et al. DGGE analysis of 16S rDNA of ammonia-oxidizing bacteria in chemical–biological flocculation and chemical coagulation systems. Appl Microbiol Biotechnol 69, 99–105 (2005).

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  • Sludge
  • Hydraulic Retention Time
  • Terminal Restriction Fragment Length Polymorphism
  • Ammonia Oxidization
  • Microbial Structure