Novel method of inactivation of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 by the freeze pressure generation method
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- Otake, T., Kawahata, T., Mori, H. et al. Appl Microbiol Biotechnol (2005) 67: 746. doi:10.1007/s00253-004-1829-6
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It has been reported that high-pressure (over 600 MPa) treatment at room temperature inactivates human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1), and it has recently been shown that the high pressure generated by the expansion of water due to freezing (freeze pressure generation method, or FPGM) has an inactivating effect on bacteria and fungi. In this study, we examined the effects of treatment by FPGM on HIV-1. A sturdy vessel filled with water and securely closed with a lid was kept at 0°C to −30°C. High pressures of 200 MPa and 250 MPa were generated at −20°C and −30°C, respectively. When T-cell-tropic and macrophage-tropic laboratory strains of HIV-1 were kept at −10°C, the virus infectivity decreased to approximately 1/100, and was completely lost at −20°C and −30°C. Four T-cell-tropic and four macrophage-tropic laboratory strains and clinical isolates of HIV-1 became completely inactivated at −30°C. Treatment by FPGM at −20°C to −30°C reduced HIV-1 reverse transcriptase activity to approximately one tenth. In addition, treatment by FPGM at −20°C was found to destroy the ability of HIV-1 to bind to CD4+ cells. In conclusion, this study showed that treatment by FPGM at −20°C to −30°C destroyed the infectivity of a wide range of HIV-1 strains, and suggested that the mechanisms of HIV-1 inactivation were the reduction in viral enzyme activity and the loss of the cell-binding ability of a viral envelope protein.