Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology

, Volume 67, Issue 3, pp 289–298 | Cite as

RETRACTED ARTICLE: Strategies for efficient production of heterologous proteins in Escherichia coli

  • S. Jana
  • J. K. DebEmail author


In recent years, the number of recombinant proteins used for therapeutic applications has increased dramatically. Production of these proteins has a remarkable demand in the market. Escherichia coli offers a means for the rapid and economical production of recombinant proteins. These advantages, coupled with a wealth of biochemical and genetic knowledge, have enabled the production of such economically therapeutic proteins such as insulin and bovine growth hormone. These demands have driven the development of a variety of strategies for achieving high-level expression of protein, particularly involving several aspects such as expression vectors design, gene dosage, promoter strength (transcriptional regulation), mRNA stability, translation initiation and termination (translational regulation), host design considerations, codon usage, and fermentation factors available for manipulating the expression conditions, which are the major challenges is obtaining the high yield of protein at low cost.


Codon Codon Usage Recombinant Protein Production Plasmid Copy Number Rare Codon 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag 2005

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Biochemical Engineering and BiotechnologyIndian Institute of Technology-DelhiHauz KhasIndia

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