Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology

, Volume 67, Issue 2, pp 151–159

Therapeutic insulins and their large-scale manufacture


DOI: 10.1007/s00253-004-1809-x

Cite this article as:
Walsh, G. Appl Microbiol Biotechnol (2005) 67: 151. doi:10.1007/s00253-004-1809-x


Biotechnological innovations over the past 25 years have underpinned the rapid development of a thriving biopharmaceutical sector. Therapeutic insulin remains one of the most commonly used products of pharmaceutical biotechnology and insulin-based products command annual global sales in excess of $4.5 billion. Innovations in its method of production and in particular the advent of engineered insulin analogues provide a fascinating insight into how scientific and technological advances have impacted upon the pharmaceutical biotechnology sector as a whole. Current insulin-based diabetes research is increasingly focused not on the insulin molecule per se, but upon areas such as the development of non-parenteral insulin delivery systems, as well as organ-/cell-based and gene therapy-based approaches to controlling the disease.

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag 2004

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Industrial Biochemistry ProgramUniversity of LimerickLimerick CityIreland

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