Bacterial lipases: an overview of production, purification and biochemical properties
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Lipases, triacylglycerol hydrolases, are an important group of biotechnologically relevant enzymes and they find immense applications in food, dairy, detergent and pharmaceutical industries. Lipases are by and large produced from microbes and specifically bacterial lipases play a vital role in commercial ventures. Some important lipase-producing bacterial genera include Bacillus, Pseudomonas and Burkholderia. Lipases are generally produced on lipidic carbon, such as oils, fatty acids, glycerol or tweens in the presence of an organic nitrogen source. Bacterial lipases are mostly extracellular and are produced by submerged fermentation. The enzyme is most commonly purified by hydrophobic interaction chromatography, in addition to some modern approaches such as reverse micellar and aqueous two-phase systems. Most lipases can act in a wide range of pH and temperature, though alkaline bacterial lipases are more common. Lipases are serine hydrolases and have high stability in organic solvents. Besides these, some lipases exhibit chemo-, regio- and enantioselectivity. The latest trend in lipase research is the development of novel and improved lipases through molecular approaches such as directed evolution and exploring natural communities by the metagenomic approach.