Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology

, Volume 63, Issue 4, pp 378–382 | Cite as

Biosynthesis of fructo-oligosaccharides by Sporotrichum thermophile during submerged batch cultivation in high sucrose media

  • P. Katapodis
  • E. Kalogeris
  • D. Kekos
  • B. J. Macris
  • P. Christakopoulos
Original Paper


Biosynthesis of fructo-oligosaccharides (FOS) was observed during growth of the thermophilic fungus Sporotrichum thermophile on media containing high sucrose concentrations. Submerged batch cultivation with the optimum initial sucrose concentration of 250 g/l allowed the production of 12.5 g FOS/l. The FOS mixture obtained was composed of three sugars, which were isolated by size-exclusion chromatography. They were characterized by acid hydrolysis and HPLC as 1-kestose, 6-kestose and neokestose. The mechanism of osmotic adaptation of S. thermophile was investigated and sugars and amino acids were found to be the predominant compatible solutes. The fungus accumulated glutamic acid, arginine, alanine, leucine and lysine, in order to balance the outer osmotic pressure. Fatty acid analysis of the membrane lipids showed a relatively high percentage of unsaturated lipids, which is known to be associated with high membrane fluidity.


Sucrose Concentration Thermophilic Fungus High Sucrose Concentration Hyperosmotic Condition Lower Retention Time 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


  1. Andersson HB, Ellegard LH, Bosaeus IG (1999) Nondigestibility characteristics of inulin and oligofructose in humans. J Nutr 129:1428S–1430SPubMedGoogle Scholar
  2. Andlid T, Larsson C, Liljenberg C, Marison I, Gustafsson L (1995) Enthalpy content as a function of lipid accumulation in Rhotodorula glutinis. Appl Microbiol Biotechnol 42:818–825CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Atiyeh H, Duvnjak Z (2001) Study of the production of fructose and ethanol from sucrose media by Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Appl Microbiol Biotechnol 57:407–411CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  4. Bekers M, Vigants A, Laukevics J, Toma M, Rapoports A, Zikmanis P (2000) The effect of osmo-induced stress on product formation by Zymomonas mobilis on sucrose. Int J Food Microbiol 66:147–150CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Brown AD (1976) Microbial water stress. Bacteriol Rev 40:803–846PubMedGoogle Scholar
  6. Csonka LN (1989) Physiological and genetic response of bacteria to osmotic stress. Microbiol Rev 45:569–606CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Förster C, Marienfeld S, Wendisch VF, Krämer R (1998) Adaptation of the filamentous fungus Ashya gossypii to hyperosmotic stress: different osmoresponse to NaCl and mannitol stress. Appl Microbiol Biotechnol 50:219–226CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Frings E, Kunte HJ, Galinski EA (1993) Compatible solutes in representatives of the genera Brevibacterium and Corynebacterium: occurrence of tetrahydropyrimidines and glutamine. FEMS Microbiol Lett 109:25–32Google Scholar
  9. Galinski EA, Herzog RM (1990) The role of trehalose as a substitute for nitrogen-containing compatible solutes (Extothiorhodospira halochloris). Microbiology 153:607–613Google Scholar
  10. Gross D, Blanchard PH, Bell DJ (1954) Neokestose: a trisaccharide formed from sucrose by yeast invertase. J Chem Soc 1727–1730Google Scholar
  11. Hidaka H, Eida T, Saitoh Y (1987) Industrial production of fructooligosaccharides and its application for human and animals. Nippon Nogeikagasu Kaishi 61:915–923Google Scholar
  12. Hidaka H, Hirayama H, Sumi N (1988) A fructooligosaccharide-producing enzyme from Aspergillus niger ATCC 20611. Agric Biol Chem 52:1181–1187Google Scholar
  13. Ivin PC, Clarke ML (1987) Isolation of kestoses and nystose from enzyme digests by high-performance liquid chromatography. J Chromatogr 408:393–398CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Katapodis P, Kalogeris E, Kekos D, Macris BJ, Christakopoulos P (2002) Production of β-fructofuranosidase from Sporotrichum thermophile and application in the synthesis of fructooligosaccharides. Food Biotechnol (in press)Google Scholar
  15. Khaware RK, Koul A, Prasad R (1995) High membrane fluidity is related to NaCl stress in Candida membranefaciens. Biochem Mol Biol Int 35:875–880PubMedGoogle Scholar
  16. Kim BW, Kwon HJ, Park HY, Nam SW, Park JP, Yun JW (2000) Production of a novel transfructosylating enzyme from Bacillus macerans EG-6. Bioprocess Eng 23:11–16Google Scholar
  17. Kunz C, Rudloff S (1993) Biological functions of oligosaccharides in human milk. Acta Paediatr 82:903–912PubMedGoogle Scholar
  18. Lanyi JK (1974) Salt-dependent properties of proteins from extreme halophilic bacteria. Bacteriol Rev 38:272–290PubMedGoogle Scholar
  19. Measures JC (1975) Role of amino acids in osmoregulation of nonhalophilic bacteria. Nature 257:398–400PubMedGoogle Scholar
  20. Patel V, Saunders G, Bucke C (1994) Production of fructooligosaccharides by Fusarium oxysporum. Biotechnol Lett 11:1139–1144Google Scholar
  21. Rengpipat S, Lowe SE, Zeikus JG (1988) Effect of extreme salt concentrations on the physiology and biochemistry of Halobacteroides acetoehylicus. J Bacteriol 170:3065–3071PubMedGoogle Scholar
  22. Rivero-Urgell M, Santamaria-Orleans A (2001) Oligosaccharides: application in infant food. Early Hum Dev 65 [Suppl]:S43–S52Google Scholar
  23. Shiomi N, Onodera S, Chatternon J, Harrison P (1991) Separation of fructooligosaccharide isomers by anion-exchange chromatography. Agric Biol Chem 55:1427–1428Google Scholar
  24. Skjerdal OT, Sletta H, Flenstad SG, Josefsen KD, Levine DW, Ellingsen TE (1996) Changes in intracellular composition in response to hyperosmotic stress of NaCl, sucrose or glutamic acid in Brevibacterium lactofermentum and Corynebacterium glutamicum. Appl Microbiol Biotechnol 44:635–642CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Straathof AJJ, Kieboom APG, Bekkum H van (1986) Invertase-catalysed fructosyl transfer in concentrated solutions of sucrose. Carbohydr Res 146:154–159CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  26. Takeda H, Sato K, Kinoshita S (1994) Production of 1-kestose by Scopulariopsis brevicaulis. J Ferment Bioeng 77:386–389CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Truper HG, Galinski EA (1986) Concentrated brines as habitats for microorganisms. Experientia 42:1182–1187Google Scholar
  28. Yun JW (1996) Fructooligosaccharides—occurrence, preparation, and application. Enzyme Microb Technol 19:107–117CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Yun JW, Jung KH, Oh JW, Lee JH (1990) Semi-batch production of fructo-oligosaccharides from sucrose by immobilized cells of Aureobasidium pullulans. Appl Biochem Biotechnol 24/25:299–308Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag 2004

Authors and Affiliations

  • P. Katapodis
    • 1
  • E. Kalogeris
    • 1
  • D. Kekos
    • 1
  • B. J. Macris
    • 1
  • P. Christakopoulos
    • 1
    • 2
  1. 1.Biotechnology Laboratory, Chemical Engineering DepartmentNational Technical University of AthensAthensGreece
  2. 2.Center for Process Biotechnology, Biocentrum-DTUTechnical University of DenmarkLyngbyDenmark

Personalised recommendations