Advertisement

Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology

, Volume 63, Issue 4, pp 466–473 | Cite as

Community structure of microbial biofilms associated with membrane-based water purification processes as revealed using a polyphasic approach

  • C.-L. Chen
  • W.-T. LiuEmail author
  • M.-L. Chong
  • M.-T. Wong
  • S. L. Ong
  • H. Seah
  • W. J. Ng
Original Paper

Abstract.

The microbial communities of membrane biofilms occurring in two full-scale water purification processes employing microfiltration (MF) and reverse osmosis (RO) membranes were characterized using a polyphasic approach that employed bacterial cultivation, 16S rDNA clone library and fluorescence in situ hybridization techniques. All methods showed that the α-Proteobacteria was the largest microbial fraction in the samples, followed by the γ-Proteobacteria. This suggested that members of these two groups could be responsible for the biofouling on the membranes studied. Furthermore, the microbial community structures between the MF and RO samples were considerably different in composition of the most predominant 16S rDNA clones and bacterial isolates from the α-Proteobacteria and only shared two common groups (Bradyrhizobium, Bosea) out of more than 17 different bacterial groups observed. The MF and RO samples further contained Planctomycetes and Fibroacter/Acidobacteria as the second predominant bacterial clones, respectively, and differed in minor bacterial clones and isolates. The community structure differences were mainly attributed to differences in feed water, process configurations and operating environments, such as the pressure and hydrodynamic conditions present in the water purification systems.

Keywords

Clone Library Reverse Osmosis Microbial Community Structure Terminal Restriction Fragment Length Polymorphism Reverse Osmosis Membrane 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

Notes

Acknowledgement.

This work was supported by a NUS grant to W.T.L.

References

  1. Altschul SF, Madden TL, Schaffer AA, Zhang J, Zhang Z, Miller W, Lipman DJ (1997) Gapped BLAST and PSI-BLAST: a new generation of protein database search programs. Nucleic Acids Res 25:3389–3402PubMedGoogle Scholar
  2. Amann RI (1995) In situ identification of microorganisms by whole cell hybridisation with rRNA-targeted nucleic acid probes. In: Akkerman ADL, Elsas JD van, Bruijn FJ de (eds) Molecular microbial ecology manual. Kluwyer, Dordrecht, pp 1–15Google Scholar
  3. Amann RI, Binder BJ, Olson RJ, Chisholm SW, Devereux R, Stahl DA (1990) Combination of 16S rRNA-targeted oligonucleotide probes with flow cytometry for analysing mixed microbial populations. Appl Environ Microbiol 56:1919–1925PubMedGoogle Scholar
  4. Amann RI, Ludwig W, Schlerifer KH (1995) Phylogenetic identification and in situ detection of individual microbial cells without cultivation. Microbiol Rev 59:143–169PubMedGoogle Scholar
  5. Daims H, Bruhl A, Amann R, Schleifer KH, Wagner M (1999) The domain-specific probe EUB338 is insufficient for the detection of all bacteria: development and evaluation of a more comprehensive probe set. Syst Appl Microbiol 22:434–444PubMedGoogle Scholar
  6. Dudley LY, Christopher NSJ (1999) Practical experiences of biofouling in reverse osmosis systems. In: Keevil CW, Godfree A, Holt D, Dow C (eds) Biofilms in Aquatic Environment. Royal Society of Chemistry, London, pp 101–159Google Scholar
  7. Flemming HC (2002) Biofouling in water systems-cases, causes and countermeasures. Appl Microbiol Biotechnol 59:629–640CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  8. Gilbert P, Brown MRW (1995) Phenotypic plasticity and mechanisms of protection of bacterial biofilms from antimicrobial agents. In: Lappin-Scott HE, Costerton JW (eds) Microbial biofilms. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, pp 118–132Google Scholar
  9. Hall TA (1999) BioEdit: a user-friendly biological sequence alignment editor and analysis program for Windows 95/98/NT. Nucleic Acids Symp Ser 41:95–98Google Scholar
  10. Head IM, Saunders JR, Pickup RW (1998) Microbial evolution, diversity, and ecology: a decade of ribosomal RNA analysis of uncultivated microorganisms. Microb Ecol 35:1–21PubMedGoogle Scholar
  11. Kalmbach S, Manz W, Szewzyk U (1997) Isolation of new bacterial species from drinking biofilms and proof of their in situ dominance with highly specific 16S rRNA probes. Appl Environ Microbiol 63:4164–4170PubMedGoogle Scholar
  12. Kalmbach S, Manz W, Bendinger B, Szewzyk U (2000) In situ probing reveals Aquabacterium commune as a widespread and highly abundant bacterial species in drinking water biofilms. Water Res 34:575–581CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Kumar S, Tomura K, Nei M (1993) MEGA: molecular evolutionary genetics analysis, ver 1.0. The Pennsylvania State University, University Park, Pa.Google Scholar
  14. LeChavellier MW, Babcock TM, Lee RG (1987) Examination and characterisation of distribution system biofilms. Appl Environ Microbiol 59:3803–3815Google Scholar
  15. Liesack W, Bak F, Kreft JU, Stackebrandt E (1994) Holophaga foetida gen. nov., sp. nov., a new, homoacetogenic bacterium degrading methoxylated aromatic compounds. Arch Microbiol 162:85–90CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  16. Liu W-T, Stahl DA (2001) Molecular approaches for the measurement of density, diversity, and phylogeny. In: Hurst CJ, Knudsen GR, McInerney MJ, Stetzenbach LD, Walter MV (eds) Manual of environmental microbiology. ASM Press, Washington, D.C., pp 114–134Google Scholar
  17. Liu W-T, Marsh TL, Cheng H, Formey LJ (1997) Characterization of microbial diversity by determining terminal restriction fragment length polymorphisms of genes encoding 16S rRNA. Appl Environ Microbiol 63:4516–4522PubMedGoogle Scholar
  18. Liu W-T, Huang C-L, Hu J-Y, Soon L-F, Ong S-L, Ng W-J (2002) Denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis polymorphism for rapid 16S rDNA clone screening and microbial diversity estimation. J Biosci Bioeng 93:101–103CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Lonegan DJ, Jenter HL, Coates JD, Phippips EJP, Schmidt TM, Lovley DR (1996) Phylogenetic analysis of dissimilatory Fe(III)-reducing bacteria. J Bacteriol 178:2402–2408PubMedGoogle Scholar
  20. Maidak BL, Larsen N, McCaughey MJ, Overbeek R, Olsen GJ, Fogel K, Blandy J, Woese CR (1994) The ribosomal database project. Nucleic Acids Res 22:3485–3487PubMedGoogle Scholar
  21. Manz W, Amann RI, Ludwig W, Wagner M, Schleifer K-H (1992) Phylogenetic oligodeoxynucleotide probes for the major subclasses of Proteobacteria: problems and solutions. Syst Appl Microbiol 15:593–600Google Scholar
  22. Manz W, Wendt-Potthoff K, Neu TR, Szewzyk U, Lawrence JR (1999) Phylogenetic composition, spatial structure, and dynamic of lotic bacterial biofilms investigated by fluorescent in situ hybridization and confocal laser scanning microscopy. Microb Ecol 37:225–237CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  23. Ridgway HF, Flemming H-C (1996) Membrane biofouling. In: Mallevialle J, Odendaal PE, Weisner MR (eds) Water treatment membrane processes. McGraw-Hill, San Francisco, pp 6.1–6.62Google Scholar
  24. Ridgway HF, Kelly A, Justice C, Olson BH (1983) Microbial fouling of reverse-osmosis membranes used in advanced wastewater treatment technology: chemical, bacteriological, and ultrastructural analyses. Appl Environ Microbiol 45:1066–1084PubMedGoogle Scholar
  25. Roller C, Wagner M, Amann R, Ludwig W, Schleifer K-H (1994) In situ probing of Gram-positive bacteria with high DNA G+C content using 23S rRNA-targeted oligonucleotides. Microbiology 140:2849–2858PubMedGoogle Scholar
  26. Saito N, Nei M (1987) The neighbor-joining method: a new method for constructing phylogenetic trees. Mol Biol Evol 4:406–425PubMedGoogle Scholar
  27. Thomson JD, Higgins DG, Gibson TG (1994) CLUSTALW: improving the sensitivity of progressive multiple sequence alignment through sequence weighting, positions-specific gap penalties and weight matrix choice. Nucleic Acids Res 22:4673–4680PubMedGoogle Scholar
  28. Ward N, Rainey FA, Stackebrandt E, Schlesner H (1995) Unraveling the extent of diversity within the order Planctomycetales. Appl Environ Microbiol 61:2270–2275PubMedGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag 2004

Authors and Affiliations

  • C.-L. Chen
    • 1
  • W.-T. Liu
    • 1
    • 2
    Email author
  • M.-L. Chong
    • 1
  • M.-T. Wong
    • 1
  • S. L. Ong
    • 1
  • H. Seah
    • 3
  • W. J. Ng
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of Civil EngineeringNational University of SingaporeSingapore
  2. 2.Nanoscience and Nanotechnology InitiativeNational University of SingaporeSingapore
  3. 3.Public Utilities BoardSingapore

Personalised recommendations