Redox-mediated decolorization of synthetic dyes by fungal laccases
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Laccases from the lignin-degrading basidiomycetes Trametes versicolor, Polyporus pinisitus and the ascomycete Myceliophthora thermophila were found to decolorize synthetic dyes to different extents. Differences were attributed to the specific catalytic properties of the individual enzymes and to the structure of the dyes. Due to their higher oxidative capacities, the laccases from the two basidiomycetes decolorized dyes more efficiently than that of the ascomycete. The azo dye Direct Red 28, the indigoid Acid Blue 74 and anthraquinonic dyes were directly enzymatically decolorized within 16 h. The addition of 2 mM of the redox-mediator 1-hydroxybenzotriazole further improved and facilitated the decolorization of all nine dyes investigated. Laccases decolorized dyes both individually and in complex mixtures in the presence of bentonite or immobilized in alginate beads. Our data suggest that laccase/mediator systems are effective biocatalysts for the treatment of effluents from textile, dye or printing industries.
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