Oxidative stress response of Kluyveromyces marxianus to hydrogen peroxide, paraquat and pressure
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The aim of this work was to study the oxidative stress response of Kluyveromyces marxianus to hydrogen peroxide (50 mM), paraquat (1 mM), an increase in air pressure (120 kPa, 600 kPa) and pure oxygen pressure (120–600 kPa) in a pressurized bioreactor. The effect of these oxidants on metabolism and on the induction of antioxidant enzymes was investigated. The exposure for 1 h of K. marxianus at exponential growth phase with either H2O2 or paraquat, under air pressure of 120 kPa or 600 kPa, induced an increase in both superoxide dismutase (SOD) and glutathione reductase (GR) content. SOD induction by the chemical oxidants was independent of the air pressure values used. A 2-fold increase in SOD activity was observed after 1 h of exposure to H2O2 and a 3-fold increase was obtained by the presence of paraquat, with both air pressures studied. In contrast, GR activity was raised 1.7-fold by the exposure to both chemicals with 120 kPa, but a 2.4-fold GR induction was obtained with 600 kPa. As opposed to Saccharomyces cerevisiae, catalase was not induced and was even lower than the normal basal levels. This antioxidant enzyme seemed to be inhibited under increasing oxygen partial pressure. The cells showed a significant increase in SOD and GR activity levels, 4.7-fold and 4.4-fold, when exposed for 24 h to 120 kPa pure oxygen pressure. This behaviour was even more patent with 400 kPa. However, whenever cells were previously exposed to low air pressures, low enzymatic activity levels were measured after subsequent exposure to pure oxygen pressure.
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