PA28 subunits of the mouse proteasome: primary structures and chromosomal localization of the genes
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- Kandil, E., Kohda, K., Ishibashi, T. et al. Immunogenetics (1997) 46: 337. doi:10.1007/s002510050281
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The 20S proteasome is a multi-subunit protease responsible for the production of peptides presented by major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class I molecules. Recent evidence indicates that an interferon-γ (IFN-γ)-inducible PA28 activator complex enhances the generation of class I binding peptides by altering the cleavage pattern of the proteasome. In the present study, we determined the primary structures of the mouse PA28 α- and β-subunits. The deduced amino acid sequences of the α- and β-subunits were 49% identical. We also determined the primary structure of the mouse PA28 γ-subunit (Ki antigen), a protein of unknown function structurally related to the α- and β-subunits. The amino acid sequence identity of the γ-subunit to the α- and β-subunits was 40% and 32%, respectively. Interspecific backcross mapping showed that the mouse genes coding for the α- and β-subunits (designated Psme1 and Psme2, respectively) are tightly linked and map close to the Atp5g1 locus on chromosome 14. Thus, unlike the LMP2 and LMP7 subunits, the IFN-γ-inducible subunits of PA28 are encoded outside the MHC. The gene coding for the γ-subunit (designated Psme3) was mapped to the vicinity of the Brca1 locus on chromosome 11. A computer search of the DNA databases identified a γ-subunit-like protein in ticks and Caenorhabditis elegans, the organisms with no adaptive immune system. It appears that the IFN-γ-inducible α- and β-subunits emerged by gene duplication from a γ-subunit-like precursor.