, Volume 68, Issue 9, pp 719–731 | Cite as

Identification of interleukin genes in Pogona vitticeps using a de novo transcriptome assembly from RNA-seq data

  • Alexandra Livernois
  • Kristine Hardy
  • Renae Domaschenz
  • Alexie Papanicolaou
  • Arthur Georges
  • Stephen D Sarre
  • Sudha Rao
  • Tariq Ezaz
  • Janine E DeakinEmail author
Original Article


Interleukins are a group of cytokines with complex immunomodulatory functions that are important for regulating immunity in vertebrate species. Reptiles and mammals last shared a common ancestor more than 350 million years ago, so it is not surprising that low sequence identity has prevented divergent interleukin genes from being identified in the central bearded dragon lizard, Pogona vitticeps, in its genome assembly. To determine the complete nucleotide sequences of key interleukin genes, we constructed full-length transcripts, using the Trinity platform, from short paired-end read RNA sequences from stimulated spleen cells. De novo transcript reconstruction and analysis allowed us to identify interleukin genes that are missing from the published P. vitticeps assembly. Identification of key cytokines in P. vitticeps will provide insight into the essential molecular mechanisms and evolution of interleukin gene families and allow for characterization of the immune response in a lizard for comparison with mammals.


Pogona vitticeps De novo assembly Cytokine Interleukin 



This work was supported by a University of Canberra postdoctoral fellowship (awarded to Tariq Ezaz, Sudha Rao, Stephen Sarre, Janine Deakin, Kris Hardy and Arthur Georges, and supporting Renae Domaschenz and Alexandra Livernois). Tariq Ezaz is supported by an Australian Research Council Future Fellowship (FT110100733).

Compliance with ethical standards

Wild-caught male P. vitticeps (Id #UC<Aus>:111880108089) was euthanized according to ethics approval by the Animal Ethics Committee (reference number CE-13-10) at the University of Canberra.

Supplementary material

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Supplemental Fig. 1 (PDF 750 kb)
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Supplemental Fig. 7 (PDF 181 kb)


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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2016

Authors and Affiliations

  • Alexandra Livernois
    • 1
  • Kristine Hardy
    • 2
  • Renae Domaschenz
    • 3
  • Alexie Papanicolaou
    • 4
  • Arthur Georges
    • 1
  • Stephen D Sarre
    • 1
  • Sudha Rao
    • 2
  • Tariq Ezaz
    • 1
  • Janine E Deakin
    • 1
    Email author
  1. 1.Institute for Applied EcologyUniversity of CanberraCanberraAustralia
  2. 2.Discipline of Biomedical Sciences, Faculty of Education, Science, Technology and MathematicsUniversity of CanberraCanberraAustralia
  3. 3.John Curtin School of Medical ResearchAustralian National UniversityCanberraAustralia
  4. 4.The Hawkesbury Institute for the EnvironmentUniversity of Western SydneyPenrithAustralia

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