Contrasted patterns of variation and evolutionary convergence at the antiviral OAS1 gene in old world primates
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The oligoadenylate synthetase 1 (OAS1) enzyme acts as an innate sensor of viral infection and plays a major role in the defense against a wide diversity of viruses. Polymorphisms at OAS1 have been shown to correlate with differential susceptibility to several infections of great public health significance, including hepatitis C virus, SARS coronavirus, and West Nile virus. Population genetics analyses in hominoids have revealed interesting evolutionary patterns. In Central African chimpanzee, OAS1 has evolved under long-term balancing selection, resulting in the persistence of polymorphisms since the origin of hominoids, whereas human populations have acquired and retained OAS1 alleles from Neanderthal and Denisovan origin. We decided to further investigate the evolution of OAS1 in primates by characterizing intra-specific variation in four species commonly used as models in infectious disease research: the rhesus macaque, the cynomolgus macaque, the olive baboon, and the Guinea baboon. In baboons, OAS1 harbors a very low level of variation. In contrast, OAS1 in macaques exhibits a level of polymorphism far greater than the genomic average, which is consistent with the action of balancing selection. The region of the enzyme that directly interacts with viral RNA, the RNA-binding domain, contains a number of polymorphisms likely to affect the RNA-binding affinity of OAS1. This strongly suggests that pathogen-driven balancing selection acting on the RNA-binding domain of OAS1 is maintaining variation at this locus. Interestingly, we found that a number of polymorphisms involved in RNA-binding were shared between macaques and chimpanzees. This represents an unusual case of convergent polymorphism.
KeywordsOAS1 Polymorphism Balancing selection Macaque Baboon
The work was conducted in part with equipment from the Core Facilities for Imaging, Cellular and Molecular Biology at Queens College. This research was supported by the Professional Staff Congress-City University of New York grant 66642–00 44 to S.B. This investigation used resources that were supported by the Southwest National Primate Research Center grant P51 RR013986 from the National Center for Research Resources, National Institutes of Health, and that are currently supported by the Office of Research Infrastructure Programs through P51 OD011133.
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