, Volume 64, Issue 2, pp 123–129 | Cite as

Characterisation of MHC haplotypes in a breeding colony of Indonesian cynomolgus macaques reveals a high level of diversity

  • Jane L. Mitchell
  • Edward T. Mee
  • Neil M. Almond
  • Keith Cutler
  • Nicola J. Rose
Original Paper


Recent reports have revealed that cynomolgus macaques obtained from different geographic origins may be more or less suitable for particular studies depending on the specific question(s) being addressed, e.g. Mauritian cynomolgus macaques are particularly suitable for detailed immunological studies against a limited genetic background while less conserved populations may be more appropriate to predict breadth of vaccine coverage in the genetically diverse human population. We have characterised MHC haplotypes in 90 Indonesian cynomolgus macaques using microsatellite and reference strand conformational analysis. Thirty unique haplotypes were defined in the cohort, emphasising the high degree of diversity in this population of cynomolgus macaques. The majority of haplotypes were present at a frequency of ≤6%. Transcription profiles indicated that each haplotype was associated with two to eight transcribed class I alleles. The results corroborate previous reports of the extensive MHC diversity of Indonesian cynomolgus macaques and provide additional data to inform colony management decisions. Further, definition of the MHC diversity of the population satisfies one of the prerequisites to MHC association studies and detailed immunological investigations in this outbred non-human primate species.


MHC Genotyping Macaca fascicularis Indonesian Microsatellite 



The authors thank the veterinary and support staff for their expertise and Julie-Ann Karl, Roger Wiseman and David O'Connor of the University of Wisconsin-Madison for their expert advice. This work was supported by the NIHR Centre for Research in Health Protection at the Health Protection Agency.

Supplementary material

251_2011_567_MOESM1_ESM.docx (111 kb)
Supplemental Fig. 1 Microsatellite profiles of 90 Indonesian cynomolgus macaques. Previously described Mauritian haplotypes are denoted MCM 1, MCM 2, MCM 3, MCM 4, MCM 6 and coloured black, red, blue, green and grey, respectively. Novel Indonesian haplotypes are denoted IND 1IND 30. RC recombinant haplotype; ND not determined: the haplotype could not be confirmed in two or more animals; 118 microsatellite markers previously described by Wiseman et al. (2007); P5, CA5-8 breeding group number; red text denotes animals assessed by RSCA as well as microsatellite analysis; asterisks denote animals where novel haplotypes were confirmed by analysis of one parental sample; double asterisks denote animals were novel haplotypes and were confirmed by analysis of both parental samples (DOCX 110 kb)


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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag 2011

Authors and Affiliations

  • Jane L. Mitchell
    • 1
  • Edward T. Mee
    • 1
  • Neil M. Almond
    • 1
  • Keith Cutler
    • 1
  • Nicola J. Rose
    • 1
  1. 1.Division of Retrovirology, National Institute for Biological Standards and ControlHealth Protection AgencyHertfordshireUK

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