Comparative analysis of mutation of tyrosine kinase kit in mast cells from patients with systemic mast cell activation syndrome and healthy subjects
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- Molderings, G.J., Meis, K., Kolck, U.W. et al. Immunogenetics (2010) 62: 721. doi:10.1007/s00251-010-0474-8
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Systemic mast cell activation syndrome is a mast cell disorder characterized by an unregulated increased activation of mast cells leading to a pathologically enhanced release of mediators. Mutations in tyrosine kinase kit which crucially determines mast cell activity have been suggested as a necessary condition for the development of a clinically symptomatic mast cell disease. At the level of mRNA in mast cell progenitor cells of 20 patients with systemic mast cell activation syndrome and of 20 gender- and age-matched healthy volunteers, the tyrosine kinase kit was investigated for genetic alterations by means of RT-PCR and direct sequencing of the amplificates. In mast cells of 13 out of these 20 patients, multiple predominantly novel potential functionally activating point mutations or complex alterations of the mRNA sequence encoding the tyrosine kinase kit were detected. In contrast, in 19 of the 20 healthy subjects, no functionally relevant alterations of c-kit transcripts were detected. The present findings support the idea that the systemic mast cell activation syndrome is a clonal disease most commonly associated with variable activating mutations in the tyrosine kinase kit.