, Volume 57, Issue 10, pp 717–729 | Cite as

High-throughput DNA typing of HLA-A, -B, -C, and -DRB1 loci by a PCR–SSOP–Luminex method in the Japanese population

  • Yoshiki Itoh
  • Nobuhisa Mizuki
  • Tsuyako Shimada
  • Fumihiro Azuma
  • Mitsuo Itakura
  • Koichi Kashiwase
  • Eri Kikkawa
  • Jerzy K. Kulski
  • Masahiro Satake
  • Hidetoshi Inoko
Original Paper


We have developed a new high-throughput, high-resolution genotyping method for the detection of alleles at the human leukocyte antigen (HLA)-A, -B, -C, and -DRB1 loci by combining polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and sequence-specific oligonucleotide probes (SSOPs) protocols with the Luminex 100 xMAP flow cytometry dual-laser system to quantitate fluorescently labeled oligonucleotides attached to color-coded microbeads. In order to detect the HLA alleles with a frequency of more than 0.1% in the Japanese population, we created 48 oligonucleotide probes for the HLA-A locus, 61 for HLA-B, 34 for HLA-C, and 51 for HLA-DRB1. The accuracy of the PCR–SSOP–Luminex method was determined by comparing it to the nucleotide sequencing method after subcloning into the plasmid vector using 150 multinational control samples obtained from the International HLA DNA Exchange University of California Los Angeles. In addition, we performed the PCR–SSOP–Luminex method for HLA allele typing on DNA samples collected from 1,018 Japanese volunteers. Overall, the genotyping method exhibited an accuracy of 85.91% for HLA-A, 85.03% for HLA-B, 97.32% for HLA-C, and 90.67% for HLA-DRB1 using 150 control samples, and 100% for HLA-A and -C, 99.90% for HLA-B, and 99.95% for HLA-DRB1 in 1,018 Japanese samples. The PCR–SSOP–Luminex method provides a simple, accurate, and rapid approach toward multiplex genotyping of HLA alleles to the four-digit or higher level of resolution in the Japanese population. It takes only approximately 5 h from DNA extraction to the definition of HLA four-digit alleles at the HLA-A, HLA-B, HLA-C, and HLA-DRB1 loci for 96 samples when handled by a single typist.


HLA genotyping PCR SSOP Luminex method Japanese 



Human leukocyte antigen


Major histocompatibility complex


Polymerase chain reaction


Single-strand conformational polymorphism


Restriction fragment length polymorphism


Sequence-specific primer


Sequence-specific oligonucleotide probe


University of California Los Angeles




Ethylene dichloride


Median fluorescence intensity


Internal control



We thank Kazunori Shimada (G&G Science Co., Ltd., Fukushima, Japan) for technical support. This work was supported by Grants-in-Aid from the Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science and Technology, Japan (No. 16209052) and a grant from the Ministry of Health, Labour and Welfare, Japan.


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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag 2005

Authors and Affiliations

  • Yoshiki Itoh
    • 1
  • Nobuhisa Mizuki
    • 1
  • Tsuyako Shimada
    • 2
  • Fumihiro Azuma
    • 2
  • Mitsuo Itakura
    • 3
  • Koichi Kashiwase
    • 4
  • Eri Kikkawa
    • 5
  • Jerzy K. Kulski
    • 5
  • Masahiro Satake
    • 4
  • Hidetoshi Inoko
    • 5
  1. 1.Department of Ophthalmology and Visual ScienceYokohama City University Graduate School of MedicineYokohama, KanagawaJapan
  2. 2.G&G SCIENCE Co., Ltd.FukushimaJapan
  3. 3.Division of Genetic Information, Institute for Genome ResearchThe University of TokushimaTokushimaJapan
  4. 4.Department of LaboratoryJapanese Red Cross Tokyo Metropolitan Blood CenterTokyoJapan
  5. 5.Department of Molecular Life Science, Division of Molecular Medical Science and Molecular MedicineTokai University School of MedicineKanagawaJapan

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