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European Biophysics Journal

, Volume 48, Issue 6, pp 549–558 | Cite as

Liposome production and concurrent loading of drug simulants by microfluidic hydrodynamic focusing

  • Wan-Zhen Sophie Lin
  • Noah MalmstadtEmail author
Original Article
  • 63 Downloads

Abstract

Liposomes are spherical vesicles enclosed by phospholipid bilayers. Nanoscale liposomes are widely employed for drug delivery in the pharmaceutical industry. In this study, nanoscale liposomes are fabricated using the microfluidic hydrodynamic focusing (MHF) approach, and the effects of flow rate ratio (FRR) on liposome size and drug loading efficiency are studied. Fluorescein isothiocyanate modified dextran is used as a hydrophilic drug simulant and Nile red is used as a hydrophobic drug simulant. The experiment results show that hydrophilic drug simulant loading efficiency increases as FRR increases and eventually plateaues at around 90% loading efficiency. The hydrophobic drug simulant loading efficiency and FRR have a positive linear correlation when FRR varies from 10 to 50. Concurrent loading of both hydrophilic and hydrophobic drug simulants maintains the same loading efficiencies as those of loading each drug simulant alone. A negative correlation between liposome size and FRR is also confirmed. Unloaded liposomes and hydrophilic drug-loaded liposomes are of the same sizes, and are smaller than the ones loaded with the hydrophobic drug simulants alone or combined. The results suggest tunable liposome size and drug loading efficiency with the MHF technique. This provides evidence to encourage further studies of microfluidic liposome fabrication in the pharmaceutical industry.

Keywords

Liposomes Microfluidic Encapsulation 

Notes

Acknowledgements

The authors thank Lu Wang for her valuable intellectual discussions. W-Z.S. Lin was funded by the USC Office of the Provost. All dynamic light scattering results were obtained using equipment provided by the USC NanoBioPhysics Core Facility. Soft lithography was done in the USC Keck Photonics Clean Room under the USC Center for Photonic Technology. Ultracentrifugation was processed using the equipment provided by the USC Roberts Research Lab. This work was supported in part by NIH grant R21-CA204708.

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Copyright information

© European Biophysical Societies' Association 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Mork Family Department of Chemical Engineering and Materials ScienceUniversity of Southern CaliforniaLos AngelesUSA
  2. 2.Department of Biomedical EngineeringUniversity of Southern CaliforniaLos AngelesUSA
  3. 3.Department of ChemistryUniversity of Southern CaliforniaLos AngelesUSA

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