Lignocellulose Decomposition and Production of Ligninolytic Enzymes During Interaction of White Rot Fungi with Soil Microorganisms
Four strains of white rot fungi, including two strains of Pleurotus sp., one Dichomitus squalens, and one Ganoderma applanatum, were grown on milled straw. After colonization of the straw by the fungi, sterile or nonsterile plugs of soil were added to the fungal substrates. The influence of the sterile soil and the indigenous soil microbiota on fungal growth, overall respiration, and production of ligninolytic exoenzymes was assessed. A method for extraction of laccase from soil samples was developed.
Lignocellulose decomposition, and enzyme production of D. squalens were enhanced by the presence of sterile soil. The availability of inorganic compounds such as manganese may be a trigger for this stimulation. Neither growth nor the production of laccase and manganese peroxidase (MnP) of the Pleurotus strains was markedly affected by the soil microbiota. These fungi were highly competitive with the soil microbiota. It was demonstrated for the first time that the exoenzymes of such fungi are active in nonsterile soil. Enzyme activity in the aqueous phase of soil was high as in the aqueous phase of the straw substrate. D. squalens and G. applanatum did not withstand the competition with the soil microbiota, but the mycelia associated with straw were overgrown by soil microorganisms. Correspondingly, the fungi did not penetrate the soil, decomposition of lignocellulose was impeded, and the activities of laccase and MnP decreased dramatically.
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