Rain-Fed Granite Rock Basins Accumulate a High Diversity of Dormant Microbial Eukaryotes

  • Ismael Velasco-González
  • Abel Sanchez-Jimenez
  • David Singer
  • Antonio Murciano
  • Sergio Díez-Hermano
  • Enrique Lara
  • Mercedes Martín-CerecedaEmail author
Environmental Microbiology


Rain fed granite rock basins are ancient geological landforms of worldwide distribution and structural simplicity. They support habitats that can switch quickly from terrestrial to aquatic along the year. Diversity of animals and plants, and the connexion between communities in different basins have been widely explored in these habitats, but hardly any research has been carried out on microorganisms. The aim of this study is to provide the first insights on the diversity of eukaryotic microbial communities from these environments. Due to the ephemeral nature of these aquatic environments, we predict that the granitic basins should host a high proportion of dormant microeukaryotes. Based on an environmental DNA diversity survey, we reveal diverse communities with representatives of all major eukaryotic taxonomic supergroups, mainly composed of a diverse pool of low abundance OTUs. Basin communities were very distinctive, with alpha and beta diversity patterns non-related to basin size or spatial distance respectively. Dissimilarity between basins was mainly characterised by turnover of OTUs. The strong microbial eukaryotic heterogeneity observed among the basins may be explained by a complex combination of deterministic factors (diverging environment in the basins), spatial constraints, and randomness including founder effects. Most interestingly, communities contain organisms that cannot coexist at the same time because of incompatible metabolic requirements, thus suggesting the existence of a pool of dormant organisms whose activity varies along with the changing environment. These organisms accumulate in the pools, which turns granitic rock into high biodiversity microbial islands whose conservation and study deserve further attention.


Granite rock basins Microbial reservoirs Protists Fungi Dormancy Conservation 



Permits to collect samples and facilities provided by The Parque Nacional Sierra de Guadarrama are gratefully acknowledged.

Funding Information

This study was funded by Ministerio de Economía y Competitividad (MINECO-Spain), Project MICROEPICS (Ref: CGL2013-40851-P/ BOS 2014-2018; PI: MM-C). EL was funded by a project “Atraccion de talento investigador” by the Consejería de Educación, Juventud y Deporte, Comunidad de Madrid (Spain) 2017-T1/AMB-5210 and by a grant from the Swiss National Foundation for Research SNF 31003A_143960.

Compliance with Ethical Standards

Conflict of Interest

The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.

Supplementary material

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Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Departamento de Genética, Fisiología y Microbiología. Facultad de Ciencias BiológicasUniversidad Complutense de Madrid (UCM)MadridSpain
  2. 2.Departamento de Biodiversidad, Ecología y Evolución. Facultad de Ciencias BiológicasUCMMadridSpain
  3. 3.Laboratory of Soil Biodiversity, Institute of BiologyUniversity of NeuchâtelNeuchâtelSwitzerland
  4. 4.Department of Zoology, Institute of BiosciencesUniversity of São PauloSão PauloBrazil
  5. 5.Real Jardín BotánicoMadridSpain

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