In Vivo Modulation of Arbuscular Mycorrhizal Symbiosis and Soil Quality by Fungal P Solubilizers
Phosphorus (P) is an essential nutrient with low bioavailability in soils for plant growth. The use of P solubilization fungi (PSF) has arisen as an eco-friendly strategy to increase this nutrient’s bioavailability. The effect of PSF inoculation and its combination with P-transporting organisms (arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi, AMF) on plant growth has been previously studied. However, these studies did not evaluate the combined effect of PSF and AMF inoculation on plant growth, symbiosis, and soil quality. Therefore, the aim of this study is to assess the impact of PSF on the AMF-wheat symbiosis establishment and efficiency, considering the effect on plant growth and soil quality. We performed a greenhouse experiment with wheat under different treatments (+/−AMF: Rhizophagus irregularis; +/−PSF strains: Talaromyces flavus, T. helicus L7B, T. helicus N24, and T. diversus) and measured plant growth, AMF root colonization, symbiotic efficiency, and soil quality indicators. No interaction between PSF and R. irregularis was found in wheat growth, showcasing that their combination is not better than single inoculation. T. helicus strains did not interfere with the AMF-wheat symbiosis establishment, while T. diversus and T. flavus decreased it. The symbiotic efficiency was increased by T. flavus and T. helicus N24, and unchanged with T. helicus L7B and T. diversus inoculation. The soil quality indicators were higher with microbial co-inoculation, particularly the alkaline phosphatases parameter, showing the beneficial role of fungi in soil. This work highlights the importance of microbial interactions in the rhizosphere for crop sustainability and soil quality improvement, assessing the effects of PSF on AMF-wheat symbiosis.
KeywordsMicrobial interactions Phosphatases Phosphate-solubilizing fungi Rhizophagus irregularis Plant growth promotion Talaromyces
We highly appreciate the helpful comments by the editors and reviewers. We thank Dr. Vanesa Silvani and the In vitro Glomeromycota bank for the AMF strain provision. We thank Lic. M. Noel Salviolo for the English language revision.
This research was financially supported by the Consejo Nacional de Investigaciones Científicas y Técnicas (CONICET) and Agencia Nacional de Promoción Científica y Tecnológica (ANPCyT).
Compliance with Ethical Standards
Conflict of Interest
The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.
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