Towards an Understanding of Diel Feeding Rhythms in Marine Protists: Consequences of Light Manipulation
Temporal programs synchronised with the daily cycle are of adaptive importance for organisms exposed to periodic fluctuations. This study deepens into several aspects of the exogenous and endogenous nature of microbial grazers. We investigated the diel rhythms of cell division and feeding activity of four marine protists under different light regimes. In particular, we tested if the feeding cycle of protistan grazers could be mediated by a light-aided enhancement of prey digestion, and also explored the consequences of cell division on diel feeding rhythms. Cell division occurred at night for the heterotrophic dinoflagellates Gyrodinium dominans and Oxyrrhis marina. In contrast, the mixotrophic dinoflagellate Karlodinium armiger and the ciliate Strombidium sp. mostly divided during the day. Additionally, a significant diurnal feeding rhythm was observed in all species. When exposed to continuous darkness, nearly all species maintained the cell division rhythm, but lost the feeding cycle within several hours/days (with the exception of O. marina that kept the rhythm for 9.5 days). Additional feeding experiments under continuous light also showed the same pattern. We conclude that the feeding rhythms of protistan grazers are generally regulated not by cell division nor by the enhancement of digestion by light. Our study, moreover, indicates that the cell division cycle is under endogenous control, whereas an external trigger is required to maintain the feeding rhythm, at least for most of the species studied here.
KeywordsCell division Continuous darkness Diel rhythms Feeding rhythms Grazing Microzooplankton Marine protists
The authors would like to thank Kaiene Griffell for technical support.
This work is supported by the FERMI project (CGL2014-59227-R; MINECO/AEI/FEDER, UE) and is a contribution of the Marine Zooplankton Ecology Group (2017 SGR 87). AA was funded with a FPI fellowship (BES-2015-074092) from the MINECO of Spain.
Compliance with Ethical Standards
Conflict of Interest
The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.
This article does not contain any studies with animals performed by any of the authors.
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