Microbial Ecology

, Volume 77, Issue 4, pp 1036–1047 | Cite as

Geographic and Temporal Variation of Distinct Intracellular Endosymbiont Strains of Wolbachia sp. in the Grasshopper Chorthippus parallelus: a Frequency-Dependent Mechanism?

  • Paloma Martínez-Rodríguez
  • Emilio Rolán-Alvarez
  • M. del Mar Pérez-Ruiz
  • Francisca Arroyo-Yebras
  • Carla Carpena-Catoira
  • Antonio Carvajal-Rodríguez
  • José L. BellaEmail author
Genes and Genomes


Wolbachia is an intracellular endosymbiont that can produce a range of effects on host fitness, but the temporal dynamics of Wolbachia strains have rarely been experimentally evaluated. We compare interannual strain frequencies along a geographical region for understanding the forces that shape Wolbachia strain frequency in natural populations of its host, Chorthippus parallelus (Orthoptera, Acrididae). General linear models show that strain frequency changes significantly across geographical and temporal scales. Computer simulation allows to reject the compatibility of the observed patterns with either genetic drift or sampling errors. We use consecutive years to estimate total Wolbachia strain fitness. Our estimation of Wolbachia fitness is significant in most cases, within locality and between consecutive years, following a negatively frequency-dependent trend. Wolbachia spp. B and F strains show a temporal pattern of variation that is compatible with a negative frequency-dependent natural selection mechanism. Our results suggest that such a mechanism should be at least considered in future experimental and theoretical research strategies that attempt to understand Wolbachia biodiversity.


Fitness estimate Frequency-dependent natural selection Temporal biodiversity Evolutionary dynamics 



We thank Dr. P.L. Mason (University of Glasgow) for his comments and suggestions as well as the constructive comments of our referees. This work was supported by the Spanish Ministerio de Economía y Competitividad (CGL2016-75482-P and BFU2013-44635 grants) with the collaboration of Chromacell S.L. We are grateful to the many people who helped in the collection and handling of the grasshoppers and to the other members of our groups. We also express our gratitude to the Aragón Government, Spain, and the French Parc National des Pyrénées for permission to collect the grasshoppers.

Compliance with Ethical Standards

Conflict of Interest

The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.

Supplementary material

248_2019_1338_MOESM1_ESM.docx (1.6 mb)
ESM 1 (DOCX 1601 kb)


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© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC, part of Springer Nature 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • Paloma Martínez-Rodríguez
    • 1
  • Emilio Rolán-Alvarez
    • 2
  • M. del Mar Pérez-Ruiz
    • 1
  • Francisca Arroyo-Yebras
    • 1
  • Carla Carpena-Catoira
    • 2
  • Antonio Carvajal-Rodríguez
    • 2
  • José L. Bella
    • 1
    • 3
    Email author
  1. 1.Departamento de Biología (Genética), Facultad de CienciasUniversidad Autónoma de MadridMadridSpain
  2. 2.Facultad de BiologíaUniversidad de VigoVigoSpain
  3. 3.Centro de Investigación en Biodiversidad y Cambio Global (CIBC-UAM)Universidad Autónoma de MadridMadridSpain

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