Home-Field Advantage in Wood Decomposition Is Mainly Mediated by Fungal Community Shifts at “Home” Versus “Away”
The home-field advantage (HFA) hypothesis has been used intensively to study leaf litter decomposition in various ecosystems. However, the HFA in woody substrates is still unexplored. Here, we reanalyzed and integrated existing datasets on various groups of microorganisms collected from natural deadwood of two temperate trees, Fagus sylvatica and Picea abies, from forests in which one or other of these species dominates but where both are present. Our aims were (i) to test the HFA hypothesis on wood decomposition rates of these two temperate tree species, and (ii) to investigate if HFA hypothesis can be explained by diversity and community composition of bacteria and in detail N-fixing bacteria (as determined by molecular 16S rRNA and nifH gene amplification) and fungi (as determined by molecular ITS rRNA amplification and sporocarp surveys). Our results showed that wood decomposition rates were accelerated at “home” versus “away” by 38.19% ± 20.04% (mean ± SE). We detected strong changes in fungal richness (increase 36–50%) and community composition (RANOSIM = 0.52–0.60, P < 0.05) according to HFA hypothesis. The changes of fungi were much stronger than for total bacteria and nitrogen fixing for both at richness and community composition levels. In conclusion, our results support the HFA hypothesis in deadwood: decomposition rate is accelerated at home due to specialization of fungal communities produced by the plant community above them. Furthermore, the higher richness of fungal sporocarps and nitrogen-fixing bacteria (nifH) may stimulate or at least stabilize wood decomposition rates at “home” versus “away.”
KeywordsHome-field advantage (HFA) Microbial communities Nitrogen-fixing bacteria Deadwood Wood decay rate Decomposition Next-generation sequencing
We thank the managers of the three Exploratories, Swen Renner, Sonja Gockel, and Andreas Hemp, and all former managers for their work in maintaining the plot and project infrastructure; Simone Pfeffer, Maren Gleisberg, and Christiane Fischer, and all members at BEO for giving support through the central office; Jens Nieschulze for managing the central data base; and Markus Fischer, Eduard Linsenmair, Dominik Hessenmöller, Daniel Prati, Ingo Schöning, François Buscot, Ernst-Detlef Schulze, Wolfgang W. Weisser, and the late Elisabeth Kalko for their role in setting up the Biodiversity Exploratories project.
Availability of Data and Material
The dataset analyzed during this study are included in this manuscript as Supplementary material files. The raw sequence data for the ITS and 16S pyrosequencing datasets are available from the NCBI Sequence Read Archive (http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/Traces/study/) under experiments SRX589508 and SRX589509, respectively. New nifH nucleotide sequences and their MOTU (molecular operational taxonomic unit) assignments are available under accession numbers HF559482-HF560561.
WP conceived the ideas. TK, DK, and BH collected the data. WP, BH, and FB designed methodology. WP and BH analyzed data; WP and BH led the writing of the manuscript with substantial contributions of all co-authors.
The work has been (partly) funded by the DFG Priority Program 1374 “Infrastructure-Biodiversity-Exploratories” (KR 3587/1-1, KR 3587/3-2, BU 941/17-1).
Compliance with Ethical Standards
Field work permits were issued by the responsible state environmental offices of Baden-Württemberg, Thüringen, and Brandenburg (according to § 72 BbgNatSchG).
Consent for Publication
The manuscript does not contain any individual person’s data in any form. The image contained in this manuscript was generated by the authors.
The authors declare that they have no competing interests.
- 1.Purahong W, Arnstadt T, Kahl T et al (2016) Are correlations between deadwood fungal community structure, wood physico-chemical properties and lignin-modifying enzymes stable across different geographical regions? Fungal Ecol. 22:98–105. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.funeco.2016.01.002 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- 5.Hoppe B, Krger K, Kahl T et al (2015) A pyrosequencing insight into sprawling bacterial diversity and community dynamics in decaying deadwood logs of Fagus sylvatica and Picea abies. Sci. Rep. 5(9456). https://doi.org/10.1038/srep09456
- 7.Gaby JC, Buckley DH (2014) A comprehensive aligned nifH gene database: a multipurpose tool for studies of nitrogen-fixing bacteria. Database J Biol Databases Curation 2014. https://doi.org/10.1093/database/bau001
- 14.Purahong W, Durka W, Fischer M et al (2016) Tree species, tree genotypes and tree genotypic diversity levels affect microbe-mediated soil ecosystem functions in a subtropical forest. Sci. Rep. 6(36672). https://doi.org/10.1038/srep36672
- 15.Veen GF (Ciska), Freschet GT, Ordonez A, Wardle DA (2015) Litter quality and environmental controls of home-field advantage effects on litter decomposition. Oikos 124:187–195. https://doi.org/10.1111/oik.01374
- 19.Purahong W, Wubet T, Lentendu G et al (2016) Life in leaf litter: novel insights into community dynamics of bacteria and fungi during litter decomposition. Mol. Ecol. https://doi.org/10.1111/mec.13739
- 21.Grove SJ (2002) Saproxylic insect ecology and the sustainable management of forests. Annu. Rev. Ecol. Syst. 33:1–23. https://doi.org/10.1146/annurev.ecolsys.33.010802.150507 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- 23.Purahong W, Hoppe B, Kahl T et al (2014) Changes within a single land-use category alter microbial diversity and community structure: molecular evidence from wood-inhabiting fungi in forest ecosystems. J. Environ. Manag. 139:109–119. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jenvman.2014.02.031 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- 27.Hessenmöller D, Nieschulze J, Von Lüpke N, Schulze E-D (2011) Identification of forest management types from ground-based and remotely sensed variables and the effects of forest management on forest structure and composition. Forstarchiv 82:171–183. https://doi.org/10.4432/0300-4112-82-171
- 32.Ammer C, Bickel E, Kölling C (2008) Converting Norway spruce stands with beech - a review of arguments and techniques. Austrian J For Sci 125:3–26Google Scholar
- 38.Purahong W, Wubet T, Kahl T et al (2018) Increasing N deposition impacts neither diversity nor functions of deadwood-inhabiting fungal communities, but adaptation and functional redundancy ensure ecosystem function. Environ. Microbiol. 20:1693–1710. https://doi.org/10.1111/1462-2920.14081 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- 39.Hammer Ø, Harper DAT, Ryan PD (2001) PAST: paleontological statistics software package for education and data analysis. Palaeontol. Electron. 4:9Google Scholar
- 40.Goldmann K, Schöning I, Buscot F, Wubet T (2015) Forest management type influences diversity and community composition of soil fungi across temperate forest ecosystems. Front. Microbiol. 6. https://doi.org/10.3389/fmicb.2015.01300
- 42.Kielak AM, Scheublin TR, Mendes LW et al (2016) Bacterial community succession in pine-wood decomposition. Terr Microbiol 231. https://doi.org/10.3389/fmicb.2016.00231
- 45.Purahong W, Kapturska D, Pecyna MJ et al (2014) Influence of different forest system management practices on leaf litter decomposition rates, nutrient dynamics and the activity of ligninolytic enzymes: a case study from Central European forests. PLoS One 9:e93700. https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0093700 CrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
- 48.Kuuskeri J, Mäkelä MR, Isotalo J et al (2015) Lignocellulose-converting enzyme activity profiles correlate with molecular systematics and phylogeny grouping in the incoherent genus Phlebia (Polyporales, Basidiomycota). BMC Microbiol. 15:217. https://doi.org/10.1186/s12866-015-0538-x CrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
- 51.Rayner ADM, Boddy L (1988) Fungal decomposition of wood: its biology and ecology. John Wiley & Sons Ltd., Chichester, Sussex, United KingdomGoogle Scholar
- 54.Hallenberg N, Kúffer N (2001) Long-distance spore dispersal in wood-inhabiting Basidiomycetes. Nord. J. Bot. 21:431–436. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1756-1051.2001.tb00793.x CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- 55.Dobbs CG (1942) On the primary dispersal and isolation of fungal spores. New Phytol. 41:63–69. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1469-8137.1942.tb07060.x CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- 60.Valentín L, Rajala T, Peltoniemi M et al (2014) Loss of diversity in wood-inhabiting fungal communities affects decomposition activity in Norway spruce wood. Terr Microbiol 5(230). https://doi.org/10.3389/fmicb.2014.00230
- 61.Yang Y, Schaefer DA, Liu W, et al (2016) Higher fungal diversity in dead wood is correlated with lower CO2 emissions in a natural forest. bioRxiv 51235. https://doi.org/10.1101/051235