Diversity and Dynamics of “Candidatus Endobugula” and Other Symbiotic Bacteria in Chinese Populations of the Bryozoan, Bugula neritina
Bugula neritina is a common invasive cosmopolitan bryozoan that harbors (like many sessile marine invertebrates) a symbiotic bacterial (SB) community. Among the SB of B. neritina, “Candidatus Endobugula sertula” continues to receive the greatest attention, because it is the source of bryostatins. The bryostatins are potent bioactive polyketides, which have been investigated for their therapeutic potential to treat various cancers, Alzheimer’s disease, and AIDS. In this study, we compare the metagenomics sequences for the 16S ribosomal RNA gene of the SB communities from different geographic and life cycle samples of Chinese B. neritina. Using a variety of approaches for estimating alpha/beta diversity and taxonomic abundance, we find that the SB communities vary geographically with invertebrate and fish mariculture and with latitude and environmental temperature. During the B. neritina life cycle, we find that the diversity and taxonomic abundances of the SB communities change with the onset of host metamorphosis, filter feeding, colony formation, reproduction, and increased bryostatin production. “Ca. Endobugula sertula” is confirmed as the symbiont of the Chinese “Ca. Endobugula”/B. neritina symbiosis. Our study extends our knowledge about B. neritina symbiosis from the New to the Old World and offers new insights into the environmental and life cycle factors that can influence its SB communities, “Ca. Endobugula,” and bryostatins more globally.
KeywordsCommunity ecology “Candidatus Endobugula sertula” 16 ribosomal RNA gene Geographic variation Host life cycle Bryostatins
We thank Charles Baer, Edward Braun, Keith P. Choe, Michele R. Tennant, and George P. Tiley for their helpful comments about this research, and Lin Xiangzhi and Niu Sufang for their aid in photography. This work was supported by funds from the Public Welfare Project of the State Oceanic Administration (Grant Number 201205024-2), National Basic Research Foundation of China (2013FY110700), and Department of Biology, University of Florida.
Compliance with Ethical Standards
Conflict of Interest
The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.
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