Divergent Influence to a Pathogen Invader by Resident Bacteria with Different Social Interactions
Bacterial social interaction is a potential influencing factor in determining the fate of invading pathogens in diverse environments. In this study, interactions between two representative resident species (Bacillus subtilis and Pseudomonas putida) and a leading food-borne disease causative pathogen (Vibrio parahaemolyticus) were examined. An antagonistic effect toward V. parahaemolyticus was observed for B. subtilis but not for P. putida. However, the relative richness of the pathogen remained rather high in B. subtilis co-cultures and was, unexpectedly, not sensitive to the initial inoculation ratios. Furthermore, two approaches were found to be efficient at modulating the relative richness of the pathogen. (1) The addition of trace glycerol and manganese to Luria-Bertani medium (LBGM) reduced the richness of V. parahaemolyticus in the co-culture with B. subtilis and in contrast, increased its richness in the co-culture with P. putida, although it did not affect the growth of V. parahaemolyticus by its own. (2) The relative richness of V. parahaemolyticus on semisolid medium decreased significantly as a function of an agar gradient, ranging from 0 to 2%. Furthermore, we explored the molecular basis of bacterial interaction through transcriptomic analysis. In summary, we investigated the interactions between a pathogen invader and two resident bacteria species, showing that the different influences on a pathogen by different types of interactions can be modulated by chemicals and medium fluidity.
KeywordsPathogen Social interaction Bacillus subtilis Pseudomonas putida Vibrio parahaemolyticus
This work was supported by the National Key Research Program of China (2016YFD0800206) and National Natural Science Foundation of China (41522106).
P.C. conceived the study. C.H.G. and M.Z. performed experiments. C.H.G., Y.W., Q.H. and P.C. analyzed and interpreted the data. C.H.G. and P. C. wrote the paper with the help of all authors.
Compliance with Ethical Standards
Conflicts of Interest
The authors declare that they have no conflicts of interest.
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