Agelas Wasting Syndrome Alters Prokaryotic Symbiont Communities of the Caribbean Brown Tube Sponge, Agelas tubulata
- 105 Downloads
The brown tube sponge Agelas tubulata (cf. Agelas conifera) is an abundant and long-lived sponge on Caribbean reefs. Recently, a disease-like condition, Agelas wasting syndrome (AWS), was described from A. tubulata in the Florida Keys, where prevalence of the syndrome increased from 7 to 35% of the sponge population between 2010 and 2015. In this study, we characterized the prokaryotic symbiont community of A. tubulata for the first time from individuals collected within the same monitoring plots where AWS was described. We also sampled tissue from A. tubulata exhibiting symptoms of AWS to determine its effect on the diversity and structure of prokaryotic symbiont communities. Bacteria from the phyla Chloroflexi and Proteobacteria, particularly the class Gammaproteobacteria, dominated the sponge microbiome in tissue samples of both healthy sponges and those exhibiting AWS. Prokaryotic community structure differed significantly between the diseased and healthy sponge samples, with greater variability among communities in diseased samples compared to healthy samples. These differences in prokaryotic community structure included a shift in relative abundance of the dominant, ammonia-oxidizing (Thaumarchaeota) symbionts present in diseased and healthy sponge samples. Further research is required to determine the functional consequences of this shift in microbial community structure and the causal relationship of dysbiosis and sponge disease in A. tubulata.
KeywordsMicrobiome Porifora Disease Thaumarchaeota Dysbiosis
The authors thank the staff of the FIU’s Aquarius Reef Base in Key Largo, Florida, for logistical support. Research in the Florida Keys National Marine Sanctuary was performed under permit FKNMS-2012-162.
This study was funded by grants from the National Science Foundation, Biological Oceanography Program to J.R.P. (OCE-0095724, 0550468, 1029515), and to P.M.E. and J.R.P. (1558580).
Compliance with Ethical Standards
Conflict of Interest
The authors declare that they have no competing interests.
- 4.Thomas T, Moitinho-Silva L, Lurgi M, Björk JR, Easson C, Astudillo-García C, Olson JB, Erwin PM, Lopez-Legentil S, Luter H, Chaves-Fonnegra A, Costa R, Schupp PJ, Steindler L, Erpenbeck D, Gilbert J, Knight R, Ackermann G, Lopez JV, Taylor MW, Thacker RW, Montoya JM, Hentschel U, Webster NS (2016) Diversity, structure and convergent evolution of the global sponge microbiome. Nat Commun 7:11870CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
- 14.Deignan LK, Pawlik JR (2016) Demographics of the Caribbean brown tube sponge Agelas tubulata on Conch Reef, Florida Keys, and a description of Agelas wasting syndrome (AWS). Proc 13th ICRS, Honolulu, pp 72–4Google Scholar
- 16.Choudhury JD, Pramanik A, Webster NS, Llewellyn LE, Gachhui R, Mukherjee J (2015) The pathogen of the great barrier reef sponge Rhopaloeides odorabile a new strain of Pseudoalteromonas agarivorans containing abundant and diverse virulence-related genes. Mar Biotechnol 17:463–478CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
- 19.Blanquer A, Uriz MJ, Cebrian E, Galand PE (2016) Snapshot of a bacterial microbiome shift during the early symptoms of a massive sponge die-off in the western Mediterranean. Front Microbiol 7. https://doi.org/10.3389/fmicb.2016.00752
- 20.Vayssier-Taussat M, Albina E, Citti C, Cosson J-F, Jacques M-A, Lebrun MH, Le Loir Y, Ogliastro M, Petit M-A, Roumagnac P, Candresse T (2014) Shifting the paradigm from pathogens to pathobiome: new concepts in the light of meta-omics. Front Cell Infect Microbiol 4:29. https://doi.org/10.3389/fcimb.2014.00029CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
- 29.Schloss PD, Westcott SL, Ryabin T, Hall JR, Hartmann M, Hollister EB, Lesniewski RA, Oakley BB, Parks DH, Robinson CJ, Sahl JW, Stres B, Thallinger GG, Van Horn DJ, Weber CF (2009) Introducing mothur: open-source, platform-independent, community-supported software for describing and comparing microbial communities. Appl Environ Microbiol 75:7537–7541CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
- 35.Gao Z-M, Wang Y, Tian R-M, Lee OO, Wong YH, Batang ZB, Al-Suwailem A, Lafi FF, Bajic VB, Qian P-Y (2015) Pyrosequencing revealed shifts of prokaryotic communities between healthy and disease-like tissues of the Red Sea sponge Crella cyathophora. Peer J 3:e890. https://doi.org/10.7717/peerj.890CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar