Metagenomic Analysis of Subtidal Sediments from Polar and Subpolar Coastal Environments Highlights the Relevance of Anaerobic Hydrocarbon Degradation Processes

  • Fernando Espínola
  • Hebe M. Dionisi
  • Sharon Borglin
  • Colin J. Brislawn
  • Janet K. Jansson
  • Walter P. Mac Cormack
  • JoLynn Carroll
  • Sara Sjöling
  • Mariana Lozada
Environmental Microbiology

Abstract

In this work, we analyzed the community structure and metabolic potential of sediment microbial communities in high-latitude coastal environments subjected to low to moderate levels of chronic pollution. Subtidal sediments from four low-energy inlets located in polar and subpolar regions from both Hemispheres were analyzed using large-scale 16S rRNA gene and metagenomic sequencing. Communities showed high diversity (Shannon’s index 6.8 to 10.2), with distinct phylogenetic structures (<40% shared taxa at the Phylum level among regions) but similar metabolic potential in terms of sequences assigned to KOs. Environmental factors (mainly salinity, temperature, and in less extent organic pollution) were drivers of both phylogenetic and functional traits. Bacterial taxa correlating with hydrocarbon pollution included families of anaerobic or facultative anaerobic lifestyle, such as Desulfuromonadaceae, Geobacteraceae, and Rhodocyclaceae. In accordance, biomarker genes for anaerobic hydrocarbon degradation (bamA, ebdA, bcrA, and bssA) were prevalent, only outnumbered by alkB, and their sequences were taxonomically binned to the same bacterial groups. BssA-assigned metagenomic sequences showed an extremely wide diversity distributed all along the phylogeny known for this gene, including bssA sensu stricto, nmsA, assA, and other clusters from poorly or not yet described variants. This work increases our understanding of microbial community patterns in cold coastal sediments, and highlights the relevance of anaerobic hydrocarbon degradation processes in subtidal environments.

Keywords

Cold environments Subtidal sediments Hydrocarbons Anaerobic biodegradation Community structure Metagenomics Biomarker genes 

Supplementary material

248_2017_1028_MOESM1_ESM.pdf (18.2 mb)
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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC 2017

Authors and Affiliations

  • Fernando Espínola
    • 1
  • Hebe M. Dionisi
    • 1
  • Sharon Borglin
    • 2
  • Colin J. Brislawn
    • 3
  • Janet K. Jansson
    • 3
  • Walter P. Mac Cormack
    • 4
    • 5
  • JoLynn Carroll
    • 6
  • Sara Sjöling
    • 7
  • Mariana Lozada
    • 1
  1. 1.Laboratorio de Microbiología AmbientalCentro para el Estudio de Sistemas Marinos (CESIMAR, CONICET), Centro Nacional PatagónicoPuerto MadrynArgentina
  2. 2.Energy Geosciences DivisionLawrence Berkeley National LaboratoryBerkeleyUSA
  3. 3.Earth and Biological Sciences DirectoratePacific Northwest National LaboratoryRichlandUSA
  4. 4.Instituto Nanobiotec, Facultad de Farmacia y BioquímicaUniversidad de Buenos Aires, CONICETBuenos AiresArgentina
  5. 5.Instituto Antártico ArgentinoBuenos AiresArgentina
  6. 6.Akvaplan-niva, Fram—High North Research Centre for Climate and the Environment, and ARCEx—Research Centre for Arctic Petroleum Exploration, Department of GeosciencesUiT The Arctic University of NorwayTromsøNorway
  7. 7.School of Natural Sciences and Environmental StudiesSödertörn UniversityHuddingeSweden

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