Antagonistic Interactions and Biofilm Forming Capabilities Among Bacterial Strains Isolated from the Egg Surfaces of Lake Sturgeon (Acipenser fulvescens)
Characterization of interactions within a host-associated microbiome can help elucidate the mechanisms of microbial community formation on hosts and can be used to identify potential probiotics that protect hosts from pathogens. Microbes employ various modes of antagonism when interacting with other members of the community. The formation of biofilm by some strains can be a defense against antimicrobial compounds produced by other taxa. We characterized the magnitude of antagonistic interactions and biofilm formation of 25 phylogenetically diverse taxa that are representative of isolates obtained from egg surfaces of the threatened fish species lake sturgeon (Acipenser fulvescens) at two ecologically relevant temperature regimes. Eight isolates exhibited aggression to at least one other isolate. Pseudomonas sp. C22 was found to be the most aggressive strain, while Flavobacterium spp. were found to be one of the least aggressive and the most susceptible genera. Temperature affected the prevalence and intensity of antagonism. The aggressive strains identified also inhibited growth of known fish pathogens. Biofilm formations were observed for nine isolates and were dependent on temperature and growth medium. The most aggressive of the isolates disrupted biofilm formation of two well-characterized isolates but enhanced biofilm formation of a fish pathogen. Our results revealed the complex nature of interactions among members of an egg associated microbial community yet underscored the potential of specific microbial populations as host probiotics.