Farming practices affect the soil microbial community, which in turn impacts crop growth and crop-weed interactions. This study assessed the modification of soil bacterial community structure by organic or conventional cropping systems, weed species identity [Amaranthusretroflexus L. (redroot pigweed) or Avena fatua L. (wild oat)], and living or sterilized inoculum. Soil from eight paired USDA-certified organic and conventional farms in north-central Montana was used as living or autoclave-sterilized inoculant into steam-pasteurized potting soil, planted with Am. retroflexus or Av. fatua and grown for two consecutive 8-week periods to condition soil nutrients and biota. Subsequently, the V3-V4 regions of the microbial 16S rRNA gene were sequenced by Illumina MiSeq. Treatments clustered significantly, with living or sterilized inoculum being the strongest delineating factor, followed by organic or conventional cropping system, then individual farm. Living inoculum-treated soil had greater species richness and was more diverse than sterile inoculum-treated soil (observed OTUs, Chao, inverse Simpson, Shannon, P < 0.001) and had more discriminant taxa delineating groups (linear discriminant analysis). Living inoculum soil contained more Chloroflexi and Acidobacteria, while the sterile inoculum soil had more Bacteroidetes, Firmicutes, Gemmatimonadetes, and Verrucomicrobia. Organically farmed inoculum-treated soil had greater species richness, more diversity (observed OTUs, Chao, Shannon, P < 0.05), and more discriminant taxa than conventionally farmed inoculum-treated soil. Cyanobacteria were higher in pots growing Am. retroflexus, regardless of inoculum type, for three of the four organic farms. Results highlight the potential of cropping systems and species identity to modify soil bacterial communities, subsequently modifying plant growth and crop-weed competition.
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The authors would like to thank Dr. Tiffanie Nelson, Montana State University, for her instruction in PRIMER and R. We also thank the farmers who allowed us to collect soil samples from their fields, Ali Thornton, Jesse Hunter, Madi Nixon, Ceci Welch, and Ethan Mayes who provided assistance with the greenhouse study. Further thanks to Subodh Adhikari, Sean McKenzie, and Wyatt Holmes for their help in gathering soil samples, and Dr. Cathy Zabinski for her insight on belowground ecology.
Compliance with Ethical Standards
This work was conducted with funding provided by the USDA-OREI (Grant MONB00365), USDA-ORG (2011-04960), and the Montana University System Research Initiative: 51040-MUSRI2015-02.
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