Shifts in Soil Chemical Properties and Bacterial Communities Responding to Biotransformed Dry Olive Residue Used as Organic Amendment
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Dry olive residue (DOR) is a waste product derived from olive oil extraction and has been proposed as an organic amendment. However, it has been demonstrated that a pre-treatment, such as its transformation by saprophytic fungi, is required before DOR soil application. A greenhouse experiment was designed where 0 and 50 g kg−1 of raw DOR (DOR), Coriolopsis floccosa-transformed DOR (CORDOR) and Fusarium oxysporum-transformed DOR (FUSDOR) were added to soil. Analyses of the soil chemical properties as well as the structure and relative abundance of bacterial and actinobacterial communities were conducted after 0, 30 and 60 days following amendment. The different amendments produced a slight decrease in soil pH and significant increases in carbon fractions, C/N ratios, phenols and K, with these increases being more significant after DOR application. Quantitative PCR assays of the 16S rRNA gene and PLFA analyses showed that all amendments favoured bacterial growth at 30 and 60 days, although actinobacterial proliferation was more evident after CORDOR and FUSDOR application at 60 days. Bacterial and actinobacterial DGGE multivariate analyses showed that the amendments produced structural changes in both communities, especially after 60 days of amendment. PLFA data analysis identified changes in soil microbial communities according to the amendment considered, with FUSDOR and CORDOR being less disruptive than DOR. Finally, integrated analysis of all data monitored in the present study enabled us to conclude that the greatest impact on soil properties was caused by DOR at 30 days and that soil showed some degree of resilience after this time.
Keywords“Alpeorujo” Bioremediation Biotransformation Mediterranean soil Olive wastes Soil microbial community
This study has been funded by the Spanish Ministry of Science and Innovation (Project AGL2008–572) and by a grant from the Competence Center TE01020218 of the Czech Technology Agency. J.A. Siles, D. Pérez-Mendoza and I. Sampedro gratefully acknowledge assistance from the JAE program, which is co-financed by the Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Científicas (CSIC) and the European Social Fund.
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