Plasmid-Related Quinolone Resistance Determinants in Epidemic Vibrio parahaemolyticus, Uropathogenic Escherichia coli, and Marine Bacteria from an Aquaculture Area in Chile
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Marine bacteria from aquaculture areas with industrial use of quinolones have the potential to pass quinolone resistance genes to animal and human pathogens. The VPA0095 gene, related to the quinolone resistance determinant qnrA, from clinical isolates of epidemic Vibrio parahaemolyticus conferred reduced susceptibility to quinolone after cloning into Escherichia coli K-12 either when acting alone or synergistically with DNA gyrase mutations. In addition, a plasmid-mediated quinolone resistance gene from marine bacteria, aac(6′)-Ib-cr, was identical to aac(6′)-Ib-cr from urinary tract isolates of E. coli, suggesting a recent flow of this gene between these bacteria isolated from different environments. aac(6′)-Ib-cr from E. coli also conferred reduced susceptibility to quinolone and kanamycin when cloned into E. coli K-12.
KeywordsMinimal Inhibitory Concentration Marine Bacterium Quinolone Resistance Coli Isolate Aquaculture Area
This work was supported by a grant from the Lenfest Ocean Program/Pew Charitable Trusts to F.C.C. and by a fellowship from the John Simon Guggenheim Foundation to F.C.C. that allowed him to begin to study antimicrobial use in aquaculture. We thank Dr. Romilio Espejo, Universidad de Chile, Santiago, Chile for V. parahaemolyticus strains. We thank Dr. Maria L. Rioseco, Hospital Regional de Puerto Montt, Chile, for the E. coli clinical isolates used in this study. Dr. D.C. Hooper, Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, MA, USA, for J53AzR. We also thank Dr. Henry P. Godfrey for his important help for improving the text and Mrs. Harriett Harrison for preparation of the manuscript. We thank Mariya Sambir and Rene Devis for assistance with some experiments.
SA identified the genes VPA0095 and aac(6′)-Ib-cr in V. parahaemolyticus and E. coli clinical isolates, respectively, cloned the genes, performed susceptibility tests, isolated the chromosomal mutant resistant to quinolones, cured plasmid, carried out DNA sequence analysis, and participated in manuscript drafting. LI and AT kept and studied antimicrobial susceptibility of marine bacteria, sequenced their aac(6′)-Ib-cr, and performed their DNA sequence analysis. FC obtained the funds for this work, planned the experiments, analyzed the data, and participated in manuscript drafting.
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