Microbial Ecology

, Volume 65, Issue 3, pp 638–651 | Cite as

Comparison of Antibiotic Resistance, Biofilm Formation and Conjugative Transfer of Staphylococcus and Enterococcus Isolates from International Space Station and Antarctic Research Station Concordia

  • Katarzyna Schiwon
  • Karsten Arends
  • Katja Marie Rogowski
  • Svea Fürch
  • Katrin Prescha
  • Türkan Sakinc
  • Rob Van Houdt
  • Guido Werner
  • Elisabeth Grohmann
Environmental Microbiology


The International Space Station (ISS) and the Antarctic Research Station Concordia are confined and isolated habitats in extreme and hostile environments. The human and habitat microflora can alter due to the special environmental conditions resulting in microbial contamination and health risk for the crew. In this study, 29 isolates from the ISS and 55 from the Antarctic Research Station Concordia belonging to the genera Staphylococcus and Enterococcus were investigated. Resistance to one or more antibiotics was detected in 75.8 % of the ISS and in 43.6 % of the Concordia strains. The corresponding resistance genes were identified by polymerase chain reaction in 86 % of the resistant ISS strains and in 18.2 % of the resistant Concordia strains. Plasmids are present in 86.2 % of the ISS and in 78.2 % of the Concordia strains. Eight Enterococcus faecalis strains (ISS) harbor plasmids of about 130 kb. Relaxase and/or transfer genes encoded on plasmids from gram-positive bacteria like pIP501, pRE25, pSK41, pGO1 and pT181 were detected in 86.2 % of the ISS and in 52.7 % of the Concordia strains. Most pSK41-homologous transfer genes were detected in ISS isolates belonging to coagulase-negative staphylococci. We demonstrated through mating experiments that Staphylococcus haemolyticus F2 (ISS) and the Concordia strain Staphylococcus hominis subsp. hominis G2 can transfer resistance genes to E. faecalis and Staphylococcus aureus, respectively. Biofilm formation was observed in 83 % of the ISS and in 92.7 % of the Concordia strains. In conclusion, the ISS isolates were shown to encode more resistance genes and possess a higher gene transfer capacity due to the presence of three vir signature genes, virB1, virB4 and virD4 than the Concordia isolates.


Staphylococcus Horizontal Gene Transfer International Space Station Antibiotic Resistance Gene Conjugative Plasmid 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.



This work was supported by grants Microbial ISS Gene Exchange and Concordia microbial dynamics from BMWi/DLR (to E.G.) and from Belspo/PRODEX (to R.V.H.). Support of the European Space Agency (ESA) as well as the French Polar Institute (IPEV) and the Italian Antarctic Programme (PNRA) are acknowledged. We thank Vacheslav Ilyin for providing crew samples and all MISSEX and COMICS partners for their constant support and advice. Skillful technical assistance of Christine Bohn and Carola Fleige is highly acknowledged. Special thanks to Prof. Dr. Vincent Perreten for providing the strains E. casseliflavus UC73, E. faecalis RE25, E. faecium SF11770, Enterococcus gallinarum SF9117, L. lactis K214 and S. haemolyticus VPS617, and to Prof. David Dubnau for Bacillus subtilis BP662 and B. subtilis BD1156.


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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 2013

Authors and Affiliations

  • Katarzyna Schiwon
    • 1
  • Karsten Arends
    • 1
    • 5
  • Katja Marie Rogowski
    • 1
  • Svea Fürch
    • 1
  • Katrin Prescha
    • 1
  • Türkan Sakinc
    • 2
  • Rob Van Houdt
    • 3
  • Guido Werner
    • 4
  • Elisabeth Grohmann
    • 1
    • 2
  1. 1.Department of Environmental Microbiology/GeneticsTechnical UniversityBerlinGermany
  2. 2.Division of Infectious DiseasesUniversity Medical Centre FreiburgFreiburgGermany
  3. 3.Unit of MicrobiologyBelgian Nuclear Research Centre (SCK•CEN)MolBelgium
  4. 4.Natl. Reference Centre for Staphylococci and Enterococci, Division FG 13 Nosocomial InfectionsRobert Koch InstituteWernigerodeGermany
  5. 5.Robert Koch-InstituteBerlinGermany

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