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Microbial Ecology

, Volume 65, Issue 2, pp 302–310 | Cite as

Candidatus Defluviella procrastinata” and “Candidatus Cyrtobacter zanobii”, Two Novel Ciliate Endosymbionts Belonging to the “Midichloria Clade”

  • Vittorio Boscaro
  • Giulio PetroniEmail author
  • Alessandro Ristori
  • Franco Verni
  • Claudia Vannini
Microbiology of Aquatic Systems

Abstract

The “Midichloria clade” is a recently discovered but well-established evolutionary lineage clustering inside the order Rickettsiales (Alphaproteobacteria). Not much is known about the biology of these organisms. The best characterized ones are endocellular symbionts of very different eukaryotic hosts, ranging from arthropods to protists. “Candidatus Midichloria mitochondrii”, the most studied organism of the group, is an interesting object of study because of its unique capability to infect metazoans’ mitochondria and the presence of flagellar genes in its genome. With this work, we aim at increasing the knowledge on the biodiversity and phylogeny of the “Midichloria group”. We characterized according to the “full cycle rRNA approach” two novel endosymbionts of ciliated protozoa, i.e. Paramecium nephridiatum and Euplotes aediculatus. According to the nomenclatural rules for uncultivated prokaryotes, we established the novel taxa “Candidatus Defluviella procrastinata” and “Candidatus Cyrtobacter zanobii” for the two bacterial symbionts. Our phylogenetic analysis based on 16S rRNA gene sequences confirms that the evolutionary histories of “Midichloria clade” representatives and of their hosts are very different. This suggests that the symbiotic processes arose many times independently, perhaps through ways of transmission still not described in Rickettsiales.

Keywords

Alphaproteobacteria Ciliate Cell Ribosomal Database Project Character Matrice Flagellar Gene 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

Notes

Acknowledgments

The authors wish to thank Beatrice Moretti for her help in performing the characterization of the E. aediculatus symbiont, Prof. Sergei Fokin and Dr. Renu Gupta for sampling the E. aediculatus population, and Simone Gabrielli for the technical assistance in graphic artwork. This work was supported by PRIN fellowship (protocol 2008R9WRTB) from the Italian Research Ministry (MIUR) and the European Commission FP7-PEOPLE-2009-IRSES project CINAR PATHOBACTER (247658).

Supplementary material

248_2012_170_MOESM1_ESM.pdf (83 kb)
Supplementary Table 1 Parameters of character matrices (see text) and molecular substitution models calculated for phylogenetic analyses (PDF 83 kb)

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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 2013

Authors and Affiliations

  • Vittorio Boscaro
    • 1
  • Giulio Petroni
    • 1
    Email author
  • Alessandro Ristori
    • 1
  • Franco Verni
    • 1
  • Claudia Vannini
    • 1
  1. 1.Biology Department, Protistology-Zoology UnitUniversity of PisaPisaItaly

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