Basidiomycetous Yeasts from Boletales Fruiting Bodies and Their Interactions with the Mycoparasite Sepedonium chrysospermum and the Host Fungus Paxillus
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Interactions between mushrooms, yeasts, and parasitic fungi are probably common in nature, but are rarely described. Bolete fruiting bodies are associated with a broad spectrum of microorganisms including yeasts, and they are commonly infected with filamentous mycoparasites of the genus Sepedonium (teleomorph Hypomyces). We report the isolation of 17 yeast strains from Paxillus and Xerocomus, 16 of which were obtained from the surface tissue, the primary site of Sepedonium infection. Phylogenetic analyses with the D1/D2 region of the 28S ribosomal gene and the internal transcribed spacers placed the yeasts as Rhodotorula, Rhodosporidium, and Mastigobasidium from the Pucciniomycotina, Cryptococcus, Cystofilobasidium, Holtermanniella, and Trichosporon from the Agaricomycotina, and Kluyveromyces from the Saccharomycotina including the first isolation of Rhodotorula graminis from Europe. To investigate the influence of the yeast strains on the mycoparasite and the host fungus, in vitro assays were conducted with Sepedonium chrysospermum and Paxillus involutus. Both S. chrysospermum growth inhibitory and stimulating yeast strains were detected among the isolates. The number of S. chrysospermum inhibitory yeast strains increased and the number of S. chrysospermum stimulatory yeast strains decreased in the presence of P. involutus in co-cultures. Low nutrient levels in the culture medium also led to an increased number of S. chrysospermum inhibitory yeast strains and ten yeasts inhibited the mycoparasite in spatial separation by a crosswall. Six yeast strains inhibited P. involutus in dual culture, and the inhibitory P. involutus yeast interactions increased to nine in the presence of S. chrysospermum. Our results suggest that the bolete-associated yeasts influence the growth of the mycoparasitic fungus, which may affect the health of the fruiting bodies.
We are indebted to Kerstin Hommel and Venukumar Vemula for their parts in co-culture analyses. This research was supported by the Deutsche Forschungsgemeinschaft (DB, AY) and the Helmholtz-Gemeinschaft (DK, MTT).
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