Dynamics of Indigenous Lactic Acid Bacteria Populations in Wine Fermentations from La Rioja (Spain) During Three Vintages
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Diversity of lactic acid bacteria (LAB) species has been analyzed for three consecutive years (2006, 2007, and 2008) during alcoholic and malolactic fermentations of Tempranillo wine in a winery at La Rioja. The results showed differences in malolactic fermentation duration, and in both diversity of LAB species and diversity of Oenococcus oeni genotypes. O. oeni was shown to be the predominant species (73% of total isolates). Monitoring the different strains of O. oeni using pulsed-field gel electrophoresis of chromosomal DNA digested with SfiI and ApaI allowed detection of a total of 37 distinct genotypes, most of them comprised at least two isolates. Six appeared in more than one vintage, one of them being present in the three studied years. Moreover, four genotypes were indistinct of the strains isolated from the air of this same winery in 2007 vintage. The frequency of participation of each genotype varied from year to year, thus dominant genotypes at one year were minority or not present at another year. This suggests that distinct indigenous O. oeni strains are better adapted to the different winery conditions every year. Predominant genotypes that appeared in more than one vintage and lead to quality wines with low histamine contents could be considered as interesting for selecting of new malolactic starter cultures.
KeywordsLactic Acid Bacterium Alcoholic Fermentation Wine Sample PFGE Pattern Malolactic Fermentation
This work was supported by funding and predoctoral grant (B.O.R., 6 March, 2009) of the Government of La Rioja, the I.N.I.A. project RTA2007-00104-00-00, and FEDER of the European Community and was made possible by the collaborating winery.
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