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Microbial Ecology

, Volume 63, Issue 2, pp 429–437 | Cite as

A Hump-Backed Trend in Bacterial Diversity with Elevation on Mount Fuji, Japan

  • Dharmesh Singh
  • Koichi Takahashi
  • Mincheol Kim
  • Jongsik Chun
  • Jonathan M. Adams
Soil Microbiology

Abstract

Little is known of how bacterial diversity in soils varies with elevation. One previous study found a decline with elevation, whereas another found no trend. We chose Mount Fuji of Japan as a geologically and topographically simple mountain system. Samples were taken at elevational intervals, between the base of the mountain at 1,000 m and its summit at 3,700 m. Polymerase chain reaction-amplified soil DNA for the bacterial 16S gene targeting V1–V3 region was pyrosequenced using the 454 Roche machine, and taxonomically classified with reference to a bioinformatic database. There was a significant “peak” in total bacterial diversity at around 2,500 m above the tree line with a decline towards the highest elevations around 3,700 m near the summit. Individual bacterial phyla show distinct trends—increase, decrease, or a mid-elevational “bulge” in diversity. Bacterial diversity does not parallel woody plant or herbaceous plant diversity. We suggest that beyond the tree and vegetation line, the more extreme temperature fluctuations, stronger UV, lack of nutrients, and more frequent disturbance of the loose substrate of these slopes allows less competition and greater bacterial species diversity due to “lottery” recruitment. However, at the highest elevations, the physiological challenges are so extreme that fewer bacterial species are capable of surviving.

Keywords

Bacterial Community Proteobacteria Actinobacteria Bacterial Diversity Bacteroidetes 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

Notes

Acknowledgments

DS is supported by the Korean Government Scholarship Program, Ministry of Education, Science, and Technology, South Korea.

Supplementary material

248_2011_9900_MOESM1_ESM.xls (36 kb)
Supplementary Table S1 Geographic and climatic information about the samples (XLS 36.5 kb)
248_2011_9900_MOESM2_ESM.xls (34 kb)
Supplementary Table S2 Diversity indices (XLS 34.0 kb)
248_2011_9900_MOESM3_ESM.xls (35 kb)
Supplementary Table S3 Relative average abundance of all bacterial phyla (XLS 35.0 kb)
248_2011_9900_MOESM5_ESM.gif (15 kb)
Supplementary Figure 1

Relationship between soil pH and bacterial diversity (GIF 15.1 kb)

248_2011_9900_MOESM4_ESM.eps (18.6 mb)
High resolution image (EPS 18.6 mb)

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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC 2011

Authors and Affiliations

  • Dharmesh Singh
    • 1
  • Koichi Takahashi
    • 2
  • Mincheol Kim
    • 1
  • Jongsik Chun
    • 1
  • Jonathan M. Adams
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of Biological Sciences, College of Natural SciencesSeoul National UniversitySeoulSouth Korea
  2. 2.Department of Biology, Faculty of ScienceShinshu UniversityMatsumotoJapan

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