Bacterial Diversity of Terrestrial Crystalline Volcanic Rocks, Iceland
- 539 Downloads
Bacteria inhabiting crystalline rocks from two terrestrial Icelandic volcanic lava flows of similar age and from the same geographical region, but differing in porosity and mineralogy, were characterised. Microarray (PhyloChip) and clone library analysis of 16S rRNA genes revealed the presence of a diverse assemblage of bacteria in each lava flow. Both methods suggested a more diverse community at the Dómadalshraun site (rhyolitic/andesitic lava flow) than that present at the Hnausahraun site (basaltic lava flow). Proteobacteria dominated the clone library at the Dómadalshraun site, while Acidobacteria was the most abundant phylum in the Hnausahraun site. Although analysis of similarities of denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis profiles suggested a strong correlation of community structure with mineralogy, rock porosity may also play an important role in shaping the bacterial community in crystalline volcanic rocks. Clone sequences were most similar to uncultured microorganisms, mainly from soil environments. Of these, Antarctic soils and temperate rhizosphere soils were prominent, as were clones retrieved from Hawaiian and Andean volcanic soils. The novel diversity of these Icelandic microbial communities was supported by the finding that up to 46% of clones displayed <85% sequence identities to sequences currently deposited in the RDP database.
KeywordsMicrobial Community Bacterial Community Volcanic Rock Lava Flow Clone Library
This work was made possible and supported by the Leverhulme Trust (project number F/00 269/N). We thank John Watson (Department of Earth Science, Open University, UK) for the XRF analyses and Stephen Summers (Geomicrobiology Group, Open University) for statistical advice. The authors are also grateful to Steve Blake and Steve Self (Earth and Environmental Sciences, Open University, UK) for helpful discussions and advice, and Mark Blaxter (School of Biological Sciences, University of Edinburgh, UK) for the sequencing facilities.
- 3.Bland W, Rolls D (2005) Weathering: an introduction to the scientific principles. Arnold, LondonGoogle Scholar
- 4.Brodie EL, DeSantis TZ, Joyner DC, Baek SM, Larsen JT, Andersen GL, Hazen TC, Richardson PM, Herman DJ, Tokunaga TK et al (2006) Application of a high-density oligonucleotide microarray approach to study bacterial population dynamics during uranium reduction and reoxidation. Appl Environ Microbiol 72:6288–6298PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
- 16.Friedmann EI, Ocampo-Friedmann R (1985) Blue-green algae in arid cryptoendolithic habitats. Arch Hydrobiol 71:2Google Scholar
- 17.Furnes H, Muehlenbachs K (2003) Bioalteration recorded in ophiolitic pillow lavas. Ophiolites in Earth's History. Special Publication 201. Geological Society of America, London. p 2Google Scholar
- 20.Good IJ (1953) The population frequencies of species and the estimation of population parameters. Biometrika 40:237–264Google Scholar
- 26.Jangid K, Williams MA, Franzluebbers AJ, Sanderlin JS, Reeves JH, Jenkins MB, Endale DM, Coleman DC, Whitman WB (2008) Relative impacts of land-use, management intensity and fertilization upon soil microbial community structure in agricultural systems. Soil Biology and Biochemistry 40:2843–2853CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- 38.Schloss PD, Westcott SL, Ryabin T, Hall JR, Hartmann M, Hollister EB, Lesniewski RA, Oakley BB, Parks DH, Robinson CJ et al (2009) Introducing mothur: open-source, platform-independent, community-supported software for describing and comparing microbial communities. Appl Environ Microbiol 75:7537–7541PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
- 40.Shoji S, Nanzyo M, Dahlgren RA (1994) Volcanic ash soils: genesis, processes and utilization. Elsevier, AmsterdamGoogle Scholar