Male Killing and Incomplete Inheritance of a Novel Spiroplasma in the Moth Ostrinia zaguliaevi
- 357 Downloads
Bacteria of the genus Spiroplasma are widely found in plants and arthropods. Some of the maternally transmitted Spiroplasma endosymbionts in arthropods are known to kill young male hosts (male killing). Here, we describe a new case of Spiroplasma-induced male killing in a moth, Ostrinia zaguliaevi. The all-female trait caused by Spiroplasma was maternally inherited for more than 11 generations but was spontaneously lost in several lineages. Antibiotic treatment eliminated the Spiroplasma infection and restored the 1:1 sex ratio. The survival rates and presence/absence of the W chromosome in the embryonic and larval stages of O. zaguliaevi showed that males were selectively killed, exclusively during late embryogenesis in all-female broods. Based on phylogenetic analyses of 16S rRNA, dnaA and rpoB gene sequences, the causative bacteria were identified as Spiroplasma belonging to the tick symbiont Spiroplasma ixodetis clade. Electron microscopy confirmed bacterial structures in the follicle cells and follicular sheath of adult females. Although many congeneric Ostrinia moths harbor another sex ratio-distorting bacterium (Wolbachia), only O. zaguliaevi harbors Spiroplasma.
KeywordsFollicle Cell rpoB Gene Wolbachia Infection Ladybird Beetle Male Host
We thank Drs. Sadahiro Tatsuki and Sugihiko Hoshizaki (The University of Tokyo) for advice and technical assistance on the study. JT acknowledges a grant-in-aid from JSPS Excellent Young Researchers Overseas Visit Program (no. 21-7080).
- 8.Cosby LD, Criddle CS (2003) Understanding bias in microbial community analysis techniques due to rrn operon copy number heterogeneity. Biotechniques 34:790–802Google Scholar
- 18.Hattori I, Mutuura A (1987) Identification of Japanese species belonging to the genus Ostrinia with the host relationships. Plant Prot 41:24–31Google Scholar
- 19.Hotopp JC, Clark ME, Oliveira DC, Foster JM, Fischer P, Torres MC, Giebel JD, Kumar N, Ishmael N, Wang S, Ingram J, Nene RV, Shepard J, Tomkins J, Richards S, Spiro DJ, Ghedin E, Slatko BE, Tettelin H, Werren JH (2007) Widespread lateral gene transfer from intracellular bacteria to multicellular eukaryotes. Science 317:1753–1756CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- 34.Kim C, Hoshizaki S, Huang Y, Tatsuki S, Ishikawa Y (1999) Usefulness of mitochondrial COII gene sequences in examining phylogenetic relationships in the Asian corn borer, Ostrinia furnacalis, and allied species (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae). Appl Entomol Zool 34:405–412Google Scholar
- 42.Swofford DL (2001) ‘PAUP*. Phylogenetic analysis using parsimony (*and other methods), Version 4.0.Google Scholar
- 43.Tabata J (2010) Studies on inter- and intra-specific variations and their mode of inheritance in sex pheromone production and response of moths. Ph.D. dissertation, The University of Tokyo.Google Scholar
- 45.Tabata J, Ishikawa Y (2011) Genetic basis regulating the sex pheromone blend in Ostrinia zealis (Lepidoptera: Crambidae) and its allies inferred from crossing experiments. Ann Entomol Soc Am (in press)Google Scholar
- 51.Whitcomb RF, Tully JG (1979) The mycoplasmas, vol 3. Academic, New YorkGoogle Scholar
- 52.Williamson DL, Poulson DF (1979) Sex ratio organisms (spiroplasmas) of Drosophila. In: Whitcomb RF, Tully JG (eds) The mycoplasmas, vol 3. Academic, New York, pp 175–208Google Scholar