Bacterial Community Diversity in the Brazilian Atlantic Forest Soils
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The aim of this study was to characterize the bacterial community diversity of the Brazilian Atlantic forest soil by means of both cultivation and 16S rRNA clone libraries. A collection of 86 representative isolates, obtained from six samples of Atlantic forest soils from the National Park of Serra dos Órgãos (PARNASO), belonged to the genera Arthrobacter, Bacillus, Burkholderia, Leifsonia, Paenibacillus, Pseudomonas, Ralstonia, Serratia, and Streptomyces according to the 16S rRNA sequences. Representative isolates from the different genera degraded cellulose and lignin. The culture-independent analysis based on 894 partial 16S rRNA gene sequences revealed that the most frequently retrieved groups belonged to the phyla Acidobacteria (29–54%), Proteobacteria (16–38%), and Verrucomicrobia (0.6–14%). The majority of the sequences (82.6%) were unidentified singletons and doubletons, indicating a high diversity of rare unique sequences. Chao1 estimator disclosed a high number of phyla (41–152) and species (263–446). This is the first survey on the Atlantic Forest soils using a combination of cultivation and culture-independent approaches. We conclude that the Brazilian Atlantic Forest soil represents a vast source of novel bacteria.