Microbial Ecology

, Volume 60, Issue 4, pp 928–934 | Cite as

The Effects of Endophytes on Seed Production and Seed Predation of Tall Fescue and Meadow Fescue

  • Susanna Saari
  • Marjo Helander
  • Stanley H. Faeth
  • Kari Saikkonen
Plant Microbe Interactions


Fungal endophytes of grasses are often included in agricultural management and in ecological studies of natural grass populations. In European agriculture and ecological studies, however, grass endophytes are largely ignored. In this study, we determined endophyte infection frequencies of 13 European cultivars and 49 wild tall fescue (Schedonorus phoenix) populations in Northern Europe. We then examined seed production and seed predation of endophyte-infected (E+) and endophyte-free (E−) tall fescue (in wild grass populations and in a field experiment) and meadow fescue (Schedonorus pratensis; in a field experiment only). Endophytes were detected in only one of the 13 cultivars. In contrast, >90% of wild tall fescue plants harbored endophytes in 45 wild populations but were absent in three inland populations in Estonia. In three wild tall fescue study sites, 17%, 22%, and 56% of the seeds were preyed upon by the cocksfoot moth. Endophyte infection did not affect seed mass of tall fescue in the field experiment. However, seed predation was lower in E+ than E− grasses in the two tall fescue populations with higher predation rates. For meadow fescue, the mean number of seeds from E+ plants was higher than E− plants, but E− and E+ seeds had equal rates of predation by the moth. Our results suggest that the effects of grass endophytes on seed production and cocksfoot moth seed predation vary considerably among grass species, and the effects may depend on herbivore pressure and other environmental conditions.


Tall Fescue Seed Mass Seed Predation Fungal Endophyte Common Garden Experiment 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.



This study was funded by the Academy of Finland (project no. 110658), Marjatta and Eino Kolli Foundation, Olvi Foundation, and Niemi Foundation.


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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC 2010

Authors and Affiliations

  • Susanna Saari
    • 1
    • 2
    • 3
  • Marjo Helander
    • 3
  • Stanley H. Faeth
    • 1
  • Kari Saikkonen
    • 2
  1. 1.Biology DepartmentThe University of North Carolina at GreensboroGreensboroUSA
  2. 2.MTT Agrifood Research Finland, Plant ProtectionJokioinenFinland
  3. 3.Section of Ecology, Department of BiologyUniversity of TurkuTurkuFinland

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