Microbial Ecology

, Volume 60, Issue 1, pp 81–95

Biodiversity of Phototrophic Biofilms Dwelling on Monumental Fountains

Environmental Microbiology

DOI: 10.1007/s00248-010-9672-z

Cite this article as:
Cuzman, O.A., Ventura, S., Sili, C. et al. Microb Ecol (2010) 60: 81. doi:10.1007/s00248-010-9672-z


Among the stone monumental assets, artistic fountains are particularly affected by microbial colonization due to constant contact with water, giving rise to biodegradation processes related with physical–chemical and aesthetical alterations. In this paper, we make an overview of reported biodiversity of the phototrophic patina developed in various fountains of Italy and Spain. The microbial composition of four fountains (two from Florence, Italy and two from Granada, Spain) was investigated using traditional and/or molecular techniques. The results indicated many common similarities with regard the phototrophic biodiversity for all the investigated fountains. Automated ribosomal RNA intergenic spacer analysis (ARISA), a molecular fingerprint tool, was used to examine the eubacterial and cyanobacterial community for two of the investigated fountains. The principal component analysis of ARISA profiles strengthens the results obtained by traditional methods and revealed separate clusters, as a consequence of the differences of micro-environmental conditions for each fountain.

Supplementary material

248_2010_9672_MOESM1_ESM.pdf (11 kb)
Supplementary Figure 1Parsimony phylogenetic tree obtained from 16S rRNA gene sequences of cyanobacterial strains isolated from fountains (PDF 11 kb)
248_2010_9672_MOESM2_ESM.pdf (11 kb)
Supplementary Figure 2Maximum likelihood phylogenetic tree obtained from 16S rRNA gene sequences of cyanobacterial strains isolated from fountains (PDF 11 kb)
248_2010_9672_MOESM3_ESM.pdf (50 kb)
Supplementary Figure 3FT-IR spectrum of the white layers observed in the cross-sections of sample S-2 with the characteristic peaks of calcium carbonate (PDF 50 kb)
248_2010_9672_MOESM4_ESM.pdf (60 kb)
Supplementary Figure 4Line plot of accumulated bars. Distribution of the different percentages of fragments in the microbial population of the fountain samples (PDF 59 kb)
248_2010_9672_MOESM5_ESM.pdf (87 kb)
Supplementary Table 1Taxonomic assignment, similarity level, and bootstrap support of cyanobacterial clusters identified in the phylogenetic analysis (PDF 87 kb)

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC 2010

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.CNR-ICVBC Istituto per la Conservazione e la Valorizzazione dei Beni CulturaliSesto FiorentinoItaly
  2. 2.CNR-ISE Istituto per lo Studio degli EcosistemiSesto FiorentinoItaly
  3. 3.CNR-IPP Istituto per la Protezione delle PianteSesto FiorentinoItaly

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