Microbial Ecology

, Volume 59, Issue 1, pp 187–198 | Cite as

In Vitro and In Vivo Evaluation of the Prebiotics GroBiotic®-A, Inulin, Mannanoligosaccharide, and Galactooligosaccharide on the Digestive Microbiota and Performance of Hybrid Striped Bass (Morone chrysops × Morone saxatilis)

  • Gary Burr
  • Michael Hume
  • Steven Ricke
  • David Nisbet
  • Delbert GatlinIII
Host Microbe Interactions


Two separate experiments were conducted with hybrid striped bass to evaluate four potential prebiotics: GroBiotic®-A (partially autolyzed brewer’s yeast, dairy ingredient components, and fermentation products), mannanoligosaccharide (MOS), galactooligosaccharide (GOS), and inulin. In the in vitro experiment, intestinal contents were incubated with the individual prebiotics (0.5% by weight) at 25°C for 24 and 48 h. Analysis of volatile fatty acids in the supernatant showed that GroBiotic®-A, MOS, and GOS tended to produce lower acetate levels but higher butyrate levels at 48 h compared to diet alone. However, denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) analysis failed to detect any differences in the composition of the microbial community among treatments. DNA sequencing of a common band for all inoculated samples revealed close similarity to the anaerobic Fusobacteria bacterium. An 8-week feeding trial also was conducted to evaluate the four prebiotics looking at growth performance; weight gain, feed efficiency ratio, protein efficiency ratio, whole-body ash, moisture, and lipid did not vary among fish fed the various diets. However, DGGE analysis revealed that all prebiotics produced a different type of microbial community in the intestinal tract of hybrid striped bass compared to fish fed the basal diet. Thus, GroBiotic®-A, FOS, GOS, and MOS exhibited prebiotic effects in hybrid striped bass.


Microbial Community Inulin Basal Diet Arctic Charr Protein Efficiency Ratio 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.



The authors would like to thank Texas Sea Grant College Program for funding this research. We also would like to thank International Ingredient Corporation (St. Louis, MO, USA) for providing the GroBiotic®-A, Alltech Biotechnology for the Bio-MOS®, Friesland Foods, Inc. for the Vivinal GOS, and Encore Technologies for the inulin. Keo Fish Farms generously provided the hybrid striped bass used in this study.


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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC 2009

Authors and Affiliations

  • Gary Burr
    • 1
  • Michael Hume
    • 2
    • 3
  • Steven Ricke
    • 4
  • David Nisbet
    • 2
  • Delbert GatlinIII
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of Wildlife and Fisheries SciencesTexas A&M UniversityCollege StationUSA
  2. 2.Food and Feed Safety UnitUSDA, Agricultural Research ServiceCollege StationUSA
  3. 3.Department of Poultry ScienceTexas A&M UniversityCollege StationUSA
  4. 4.Center for Food Safety, ISFE and Food Science DepartmentUniversity of ArkansasFayettevilleUSA

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