Evidence of Increased Diversity of Methanogenic Archaea with Plant Extract Supplementation
- 629 Downloads
This study evaluated the effects of selected essential oils on archaeal communities using the ovine rumen model. Forty weaned Canadian Arcott ewes, fed with barley-based diet, were allotted to one of three essential oil supplementation treatments or a control (10 ewes per treatment) for 13 weeks. The treatments were cinnamaldehyde, garlic oil, juniper berry oil, and a control with no additive. Rumen content was sampled after slaughter and grouped by treatment by combining subsamples from each animal. DNA was extracted from the pooled samples and analyzed for methanogenic archaea using quantitative polymerase chain reaction, denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis, cloning, and sequencing. Our results suggest that the total copy number of archaeal 16S rRNA was not significantly affected by the treatments. The phylogenetic analysis indicated a trend toward an increased diversity of methanogenic archaea related to Methanosphaera stadtmanae, Methanobrevibacter smithii, and some uncultured groups with cinnamaldehyde, garlic, and juniper berry oil supplementation. The trends in the diversity of methanogenic archaea observed with the essential oil supplementation may have resulted from changes in associated protozoal species. Supplementation of ruminant diets with essential oils may alter the diversity of rumen methanogens without affecting the methanogenic capacity of the rumen.
KeywordsCinnamaldehyde Archaeal Community Methanogenic Archaea Methanobrevibacter Methanobacteriaceae
We thank Edith Valle for technical assistance and our unknown reviewers for their comments. Support for this study was provided by Agri-Food Canada’s Matching Investment Initiative. This paper represents the Lethbridge Research Centre manuscript number 38707025.
- 8.CCAC (1993) Guide to the care and use of experimental animals. Canadian Council on Animal Care, Ottawa, ON, CanadaGoogle Scholar
- 10.Cole JR, Chai B, Marsh TL, Farris RJ, Wang Q, Kulam SA, Chandra S, McGarrell DM, Schmidt TM, Garrity GM, Tiedje JM (2003) The Ribosomal Database Project (RDP-II): Previewing a new autoaligner that allows regular updates and the new prokaryotic taxonomy. Nucleic Acids Res 31:442–443PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
- 14.Felsenstein J (1993) PHYLIP (Phylogeny Inference Package) version 3.5c. Department of Genetics, University of Washington, SeattleGoogle Scholar
- 15.Fricke WF, Seedorf H, Henne A, Kruer M, Liesegang H, Hedderich R, Gottschalk G, Thauer RK (2006) The genome sequence of Methanosphaera stadtmanae reveals why this human intestinal archaeon is restricted to methanol and H2 for methane formation and ATP synthesis. J Bacteriol 188:642–658PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
- 22.Kamra DN, Agarwal N, Chaudhary LC (2005) In: Soliva CR, Takahashi J, Kreuzer M (eds) Inhibition of ruminal methanogenesis by tropical plants containing secondary plant compounds. ETH, Zurich, Switzerland, pp 102–111Google Scholar
- 26.Muyzer G, Brinkhoff T, Nubel U, Santegoeds C, Schaefer H, Waver C (1998) Denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) in microbial ecology. In: Kowalchuk GA, de Brijn FJ, Head IM, Akkermans ADL, van Elsas JD (eds) Molecular Microbial Ecology Manual, vol. 2. Kluwer, Dordrecht, The Netherlands, pp 743–770Google Scholar
- 35.Stahl DA, Amann R (1991) Development and application of nucleic acid probes. In: Stackebrandt E, Goodfellow M (eds) Nucleic acid techniques in bacterial systematics. Wiley, Chichester, Chichester, England, pp 205–248Google Scholar
- 37.Waghorn G, Woodward S (2006) Ruminant contributions to methane and global warming - A New Zealand Perspective. In: Bhatti JS, Lal R, Apps MJ, Price MA (eds) Climate change and managed ecosystems. CRC Press, Boca Raton, FL, USA, pp 233–260Google Scholar