Diversity of Sulfate-Reducing Bacteria Inhabiting the Rhizosphere of Phragmites australis in Lake Velencei (Hungary) Revealed by a Combined Cultivation-based and Molecular approach
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The community structure of sulfate-reducing bacteria (SRB) associated with reed (Phragmites australis) rhizosphere in Lake Velencei (Hungary) was investigated by using cultivation-based and molecular methods. The cultivation methods were restricted to recover lactate-utilizing species with the exclusion of Desulfobacter and some Desulfobacterium species presumably not being dominant members of the examined community. The most-probable-number (MPN) estimations of lactate-utilizing SRB showed that the cell counts in reed rhizosphere were at least one order of magnitude higher than that in the bulk sediment. The number of endospores was low compared to the total SRB counts. From the highest positive dilution of MPN series, 47 strains were isolated and grouped by restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) analysis of the amplified 16S ribosomal RNA (rRNA) and dsrAB (dissimilatory sulfite reductase) genes. Contrary to the physiological diversity of the isolates, the combined results of RFLP analysis revealed higher diversity at species as well as at subspecies level. Based on the partial 16S rRNA sequences, the representative strains were closely affiliated with the genera Desulfovibrio and Desulfotomaculum. The partial dsrAB sequences of the clones, recovered after isolation and PCR amplification of the community DNA, were related to hitherto uncultured species of the genera Desulfovibrio and Desulfobulbus. Nevertheless, the representative of the second largest clone group was shown to be closely affiliated with the sequenced dsrAB gene of a strain isolated from the same environment and identified as Desulfovibrio alcoholivorans. Another clone sequence was closely related to a possible novel species also isolated within the scope of this work.