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Microbial Ecology

, Volume 49, Issue 3, pp 416–424 | Cite as

Brevibacillus brevis Isolated from Cadmium- or Zinc-Contaminated Soils Improves in Vitro Spore Germination and Growth of Glomus mosseae under High Cd or Zn Concentrations

  • A. Vivas
  • J.M. Barea
  • R. Azcón
Article

Abstract

In this study we investigated the saprophyte growth of two arbuscular–mycorrhizal fungi (Glomus mosseae isolate) under increasing Cd or Zn levels and the influence of a selected bacterial strain of Brevibacillus brevis. Microorganisms here assayed were isolated from Cd or Zn polluted soils. B. brevis increased the presymbiotic growth (germination rate growth and mycelial development) of Glomus mosseae. Spore germination and mycelial development of both G. mosseae isolate were reduced as much as the amount of Cd or Zn increased in the growth medium. In medium supplemented with 20 μg Cd mL−1, the spore germination was only 12% after 20 days of incubation, but the coinoculation with B. brevis increased this value to 40% after only 15 days. The addition of 20 μg Cd mL−1 to the growth medium drastically inhibited hyphal development, but the presence of the bacterium increased hyphal growth of G. mosseae from 195% (without Cd) until 254% (with 20 μg Cd mL−1). The corresponding bacterial effect increasing micelial growth ranged from 125% (without Zn) to 232% (200 μg Zn mL−1) in the case of G. mosseae isolated from Zn-polluted soil. Mycelial growth under 5 μg Cd mL−1 (without bacterium) was similarly reduced from that produced at 15 μg Cd mL−1 in the presence of the bacteria. As well, 50 μg Zn mL−1 (without bacterium) reduced hyphal growth as much as 200 μg Zn mL−1 did in the presence of B. brevis. The bacterial effect on the saprophytic growth of G. mosseae in absence of metal may be due to the involvement of indole acetic acid (IAA) produced by these bacteria. The Cd bioaccumulation ability exhibited (76%) by Cd-adapted B. brevis reduced the Cd damage on G. mosseae in Cd-contaminated medium. These capabilities of B. brevis isolates partially alleviate the inhibitory effects of Cd or Zn on the axenic growth of G. mosseae.

Keywords

Arbuscular Mycorrhizal Biosorption Indole Acetic Acid Spore Germination Indole Acetic Acid 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

Notes

Acknowledgments

A. Vivas thanks the Fundación Gran Mariscal de Ayacucho (Venezuela) for the scholarship to the project AGL2003-05619-CO2-02.

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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, Inc. 2005

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Departamento de Microbiología del Suelo y Sistemas SimbióticosEstación Experimental del Zaidín, CSICGranadaSpain

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