Microbial Ecology

, Volume 49, Issue 1, pp 176–182 | Cite as

Limnothrix redekei (Van Goor) Meffert (Cyanobacteria) Strains from Lake Kastoria, Greece Form a Separate Phylogenetic Group

  • S. Gkelis
  • P. Rajaniemi
  • E. Vardaka
  • M. Moustaka-Gouni
  • T. Lanaras
  • K. SivonenEmail author


Three strains of Limnothrix (Cyanobacteria) isolated from Lake Kastoria, Greece, were characterized based on their morphological features and 16S rRNA gene sequences. The Limnothrix isolates 007a, 165a, and 165c can morphologically be assigned to Limnothrix redekei (Van Goor) Meffert. The 16S rRNA gene of the Limnothrix strains showed a 99% similarity to the 16S rRNA gene of Planktothrix sp. FP1. Limnothrix redekei strains 165a, 165c, 007a and Planktothrix sp. FP1 formed a separate cluster in the cyanobacterial 16S rRNA gene tree. It was distinct from the Pseudanabaena cluster, which included the other Limnothrix strains isolated from northern temperate lakes. This is the first report on the phylogeny of L. redekei strains originating from a Mediterranean lake (southern Europe) and provides new data about the genus Limnothrix.


Oscillatoria Maximum Parsimony Tree Strain 165c General Time Reversible Mediterranean Lake 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.



This study was supported by the EU programs CYANOTOX (IC18-CT98-0293) and MIDI-CHIP (EKV2-CT-1999-00026), the Academy of Finland to KS and the Bodossaki Foundation, Greece, to SG. We thank Dr David Fewer for his help in constructing the phylogenetic trees and Dr Christina Lyra for her constructive comments about the manuscript. We thank Electron Microscopy Unit of the Institute of Biotechnology-University of Helsinki for providing laboratory facilities and Dr. Eija Jokitalo and Merja Lindman for help in EM work. Prof. Jiri Komárek is gratefully acknowledged for valuable and fruitful discussions.


  1. 1.
    Anagnostidis, K, Komárek, J 1988Modern approach to the classification system of cyanophytes. 3—Oscillatoriales.Arch Hydrobiol Suppl80327472Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    Bailey-Watts, AE 1972The algal plankton of Loch Leven, KinrossProc Roy Soc Edinburgh Sect B74135156Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    Castenholz, RW, Rippka, R, Herdman, M, Wilmotte, A 2001Form-genus VI. Limnothrix Meffert 1988.Boone, DRCastenholz, RW eds. Bergey’s Manual of Systematic Bacteriology, vol. 1Springer-VerlagNew York546Google Scholar
  4. 4.
    Castenholz, RW, Rippka, R, Herdman, M, Wilmotte, A 2001Subsection III. (Formerly Oscillatoriales Elenkin 1934).Boone, DRCastenholz, RW eds. Bergey’s Manual of Systematic Bacteriology, vol. 1Springer-VerlagNew York539562Google Scholar
  5. 5.
    de Chazal, NM, Smaglinski, S, Smith, GD 1992Methods involving light variation of cyanobacteria: characterization of isolates from central Australia.Appl Environ Microbiol5835613566Google Scholar
  6. 6.
    Edwards, U, Rogall, T, Blöcker, H, Emde, M, Böttger, EC 1989Isolation and direct complete nucleotide determination of entire genes. Characterisation of a gene coding for 16S ribosomal RNA.Nucleic Acids Res1778437853PubMedGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Fay, P 1983The Blue-greens (Cyanophyta, Cyanobacteria). Studies in Biology/Institute of Biology, no. 160Edward Arnold PublishersSouthampton, UK1718Google Scholar
  8. 8.
    Gibson, CE, Wood, RB, Dickson, EL, Jewson, DH 1971The succession of phytoplankton Lough Neagh 1968–1970.Mitt Int Ver Theor Angew Limnol19146160Google Scholar
  9. 9.
    Hall, TA 1999BioEdit: a user-friendly biological sequence alignment editor and analysis program for Windows 95/98/NT.Nucleic Acids Symp Ser419598Google Scholar
  10. 10.
    Hernández-Mariné, M 1996Electron microscopic characterization of Microcoleus chthonoplastes THUR. (Cyanobacteria).Algolog Studies83347365Google Scholar
  11. 11.
    Hindák, F, Moustaka, MT 1988Planktic cyanophytes of Lake Volvi, Greece.Arch Hydrobiol Suppl80497528Google Scholar
  12. 12.
    Hönerlage, W, Hahn, D, Zeyer, J 1995Detection of mRNA of nprM in Bacillus megaterium ATCC 14581 grown in soil by whole-cell hybridization.Arch Microbiol163235241Google Scholar
  13. 13.
    Köhler, J, Hoeg, S 2000Phytoplankton selection in a river–lake system during two decades of changing nutrient supply.Hydrobiologia4241324CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Komárek, J, Azevedo, MTP 2000Geitlerinema unigranulatum, a common tropical cyanoprokaryote from freshwater reservoirs in Brazil.Algolog Studies993952Google Scholar
  15. 15.
    Laamanen, MJ, Gugger, MF, Lehtimäki, JM, Haukka, K, Sivonen, K 2001Diversity of toxic and non-toxic Nodularia isolates (cyanobacteria) and filaments from the Baltic sea.Appl Environ Microbiol6746384647CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Lehtimäki, J, Lyra, C, Suomalainen, S, Sundman, P, Rouhiainen, L, Paulin, L, Salkinoja-Salonen, M, Sivonen, K 2000Characterization of Nodularia strains, cyanobacteria from brackish waters, by genotypic and phenotypic methods.Int J Syst Evol Microbiol5010431053PubMedGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Lepère, C, Wilmotte, A, Meyer, B 2000Molecular diversity of Microcystis strains (Cyanophyaceae, Chroococales) based on 16S rDNA sequences.Syst Geogr Pl70275283Google Scholar
  18. 18.
    Lyra, C, Suomalainen, S, Gugger, M, Vézie, C, Sundman, P, Paulin, L, Sivonen, K 2001Molecular characterization of planktic cyanobacteria of Anabaena, Aphanizomenon, Microcystis and Planktothrix genera.Int J Syst Evol Microbiol51513526PubMedGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Mayer, J, Dokulil, MT, Salbrechter, M, Berger, M, Posch, T, Pfister, G, Kirschner, AKT, Velimirov, B, Steitz, A, Ulbricht, T 1997Seasonal successions and trophic relations between phytoplankton, zooplankton, ciliate and bacteria in a hypertrophic shallow lake in Vienna, Austria.Hydrobiologia342165174CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Meffert, ME 1987Planktic unsheathed filaments (Cyanophyceae) with polar and central gas-vacuoles. I. Their morphology and taxonomy.Arch Hydrobiol Suppl76315346Google Scholar
  21. 21.
    Meffert, ME 1988Limnothrix Meffert nov. gen. The unsheathed planktic cyanophycean filaments with polar and central gas-vacuoles.Arch Hydrobiol Suppl80269276Google Scholar
  22. 22.
    Meffert, ME 1989Planktic unsheathed filaments (Cyanophyceae) with polar and central gas-vacuoles. II. Biology population dynamics and biotopes of Limnothrix redekei (Van Goor) Meffert.Arch Hydrobiol116257282Google Scholar
  23. 23.
    Meffert, ME 1989In situ and in vitro photosynthesis of Limnothrix redekei (Cyanophyta).Arch Hydrobiol119299313Google Scholar
  24. 24.
    Meffert, ME, Oberhäuser, R, Overbeck, J 1981Morphology and taxonomy of Oscillatoria redekei (cyanophyta).Br Phycol J16107114Google Scholar
  25. 25.
    Moustaka-Gouni, M 1993Phytoplankton succession and diversity in a warm monomictic, relatively shallow lake: Lake Volvi, Macedonia, Greece.Hydrobiologia2493342Google Scholar
  26. 26.
    Mur, LR, Skulberg, OM, Utkilen, H 1999Cyanobacteria in the environment.Chorus, IBartram, J eds. Toxic Cyanobacteria in WaterWorld Health Organization, E & FN SponLondon179209Google Scholar
  27. 27.
    Nixdorf, B 1994Polymixis of a shallow lake (Grosser Müggelsee, Berlin) and its influence on seasonal phytoplankton dynamics.Hydrobiologia176173186Google Scholar
  28. 28.
    Palinska, KA, Liesack, W, Rhiel, E, Krumbein, WE 1996Phenotype variability of identical genotypes: the need for a combined approach in cyanobacterial taxonomy demonstrated on Merismopedia-like isolates.Arch Microbiol166224233CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  29. 29.
    Pomati, F, Sacchi, S, Rossetti, C, Giovannardi, S, Onodera, H, Oshima, Y 2000The freshwater cyanobacterium Plankothrix sp. FP1: molecular identification and detection of paralytic shellfish poisoning toxins.J Phycol36553562CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. 30.
    Reynolds, CS 1994The long, the short and the stalled: on the attributes of phytoplankton selected by physical mixing in lakes and rivers.Hydrobiologia189921CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. 31.
    Rippka, R 1988Isolation and purification of cyanobacteria.Methods Enzymol167327PubMedGoogle Scholar
  32. 32.
    Rojo, C, Alvarez Cobelas, M 1994Population dynamics of Limnothrix redekei, Oscillatoria lanceaformis, Planktothrix agardhii and Pseudanabaena limnetica (cyanobacteria) in a shallow hypertrophic lake (Spain).Hydrobiologia276165171Google Scholar
  33. 33.
    Rücker, J, Wiedner, C, Zippel, P 1997Factors controlling the dominance of Planktothrix agardhii and Limnothrix redekei in eutrophic shallow lakes.Hydrobiologia342/343107115Google Scholar
  34. 34.
    Saitou, N, Nei, M 1987The neighbor-joining method: a new method for reconstructing phylogenetic trees.Mol Biol Evol4406425PubMedGoogle Scholar
  35. 35.
    Silva, SMF, Pienaar, RN 2000Benthic marine cyanophyceae from Kwa-Zulu Natal, South Africa. Lies, LSchnetter, R eds. Bibliotheca Phycologica.Berlin-Stuttgart231236Google Scholar
  36. 36.
    Stackebrandt, E, Goebel, BM 1994Taxonomic note: a place for DNA–DNA reassociation and 16S rRNA sequence analysis in the present species definition in bacteriology.Int J Syst Bacteriol44486849Google Scholar
  37. 37.
    Suda, S, Watanabe, MM, Otsuka, S, Mahakahant, A, Yongmanitchai, W, Nopartnaraporn, N, Liu, Y, Day, JG 2002Taxonomic revision of water-bloom-forming species of oscillatorioid cyanobacteria.Int J Syst Evol Microbiol5215771595PubMedGoogle Scholar
  38. 38.
    Swofford, DL 2000PAUP*. Phylogenetic Analysis Using Parsimony (*and Other Methods). Version 4.0b8Sinauer AssociatesSunderlandGoogle Scholar
  39. 39.
    Turner, S 1997Molecular systematics of oxygenic photosynthetic bacteria.Plant Syst Evol (Supplement)111352Google Scholar
  40. 40.
    Wilmotte, A, Herdman, M 2001Phylogenetic relationships among the Cyanobacteria based on 16S rRNA sequences.Boone, DRCastenholz, RW eds. Bergey’s Manual of Systematic Bacteriology, vol. 1Springer- VerlagNew York487493Google Scholar
  41. 41.
    Vardaka, E, Moustaka-Gouni, M, Lanaras, T 2000Temporal and spatial distribution of planktic cyanobacteria in Lake Kastoria, Greece, a shallow, urban lake.Nord J Bot20501511Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media Inc. 2005

Authors and Affiliations

  • S. Gkelis
    • 1
    • 2
  • P. Rajaniemi
    • 1
  • E. Vardaka
    • 2
    • 3
  • M. Moustaka-Gouni
    • 2
  • T. Lanaras
    • 2
  • K. Sivonen
    • 1
    Email author
  1. 1.Department of Applied Chemistry and MicrobiologyViikki BiocenterFinland
  2. 2.Department of BotanyUniversity of ThessalonikiThessalonikiGreece
  3. 3.Department of Fisheries and Aquaculture TechnologyTechnological Educational Institute of Thessaloniki, Campus of MoudaniaMoudaniaGreece

Personalised recommendations